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Search-Enable Your Application with Lucene
Search-Enable Your Application with Lucene

The e-commerce Web site that I work on has seen several incarnations of its search feature. We started with plain vanilla SQL using "like" clauses, but this didn't perform well and left a lot to be desired in language features such as stemming (e.g., "paint" = "painter" = "painting") and synonym matching (e.g., "cat" = "feline"). Next we tried an off-the-shelf solution. This addressed our efficiency and language demands, but it was ridden with strange quirks and we were limited in how much we could customize its behavior.

Then we discovered Lucene. Lucene is an open-source search framework from Apache's Jakarta project. As a framework, Lucene provides you with the building blocks you need to build a search engine that meets your specific searching requirements. Lucene is flexible, fully customizable, and amazingly fast.

In this article I show you how to use Lucene to build a search solution for your application. Although my examples will be geared toward an e-commerce application, Lucene is flexible enough to be used on any application whether it's Web, desktop, or CD-ROM based.

I used version 1.2 of Lucene to develop the examples in this article. It can be downloaded from http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene. Lucene is self-contained, so you'll need only a JVM (v1.1.8 or higher) to use it. Place lucene-1.2.jar into your classpath and you're ready to start.

Indexing Documents
To build a Lucene index, first you'll need an instance of IndexWriter. The following lines of code create an IndexWriter for an index located at c:\myindex.

Analyzer analyzer = new StopAnalyzer();
writer = new IndexWriter("c:/myindex", analyzer, true);

The first argument to the constructor is the path where the index will be written. If the path doesn't already exist, Lucene will create it for you. The second argument is the Analyzer you want IndexWriter to use when tokenizing text. Here I used StopAnalyzer to remove stop words ("and," "or," "the," etc.) from the token stream. The last argument tells IndexWriter whether to create a new index or to add documents to an existing one. Passing true to the constructor will create the index from scratch; passing false will append to an existing index.

Now that you have an IndexWriter, you're ready to start adding documents to the index. The following code creates a simple document that represents a Web page and uses IndexWriter to add it to the index.

String url = "http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene";
String content = indexer.retrieveWebPageContent(url);
String keywords = indexer.extractKeywords(content);

Document doc = new Document();
doc.add(Field.UnIndexed("url", url));
doc.add(Field.UnStored("keywords", keywords));
doc.add(Field.Text("content", content));
writer.addDocument(doc);

In this example, the document contains the URL metadata for Lucene's homepage, a keywords field that contains search terms to match against in a search, and a "content" field that contains the full content of the Web page.

Once all documents have been added, all that remains is to close the index.

writer.close();

Although this example adds only a single (hard-coded) document to an index, it serves well as a "Hello World" example of how to create indexes using Lucene. The complete source code for this example is in Listing 1. (Listings 1-10 can be downloaded from www.sys-con.com/java/sourcec.cfm.)

For a more interesting example, suppose you're indexing a product catalog to be searched on an e-commerce Web site. A product is made up of a SKU, a name, a price, and some keywords to be searched on (see Listing 2). ProductIndexer (see Listing 3) is a convenience class used to add products to a Lucene index.

The constructor for ProductIndexer takes a string that's the path where the Lucene index will be built and a Boolean parameter that specifies whether a new index will be created or an existing index appended. ProductIndexer uses StopAnalyzer for tokenizing text.

The addProduct() method creates an instance of Document and translates the attributes of the Product into document fields. As in the simple example earlier, the "keywords" field is created as unstored so it can be searched upon but is unavailable for retrieval. The other fields are created as unindexed because these fields will be retrieved only after a successful search, not searched upon themselves.

The close() method closes the IndexWriter, making it available for searching. Before closing, however, a call is made to the IndexWriter's optimize() method to have Lucene optimize the index. Although it's entirely optional, it's generally a good idea to call optimize() if the indexing is finished for the time being and no further documents will be added to the index for a while.

ProductDBIndexer (see Listing 4) reads products from a "catalog" table in a relational database (see Table 1 for the products that I used) and uses ProductIndexer to add the products to Lucene's index. ProductDBIndexer takes two command-line arguments: the path in which to build the index and an optional "create" flag to indicate that the index should be built from scratch.

Lucene Index Structure
Lucene indexes are file based. If you look in the directory where you created the index, you'll find several files that define the Lucene index. Depending on how large your index is, you'll see several groups of files where each file in a group has the same name but a different extension. Each of these groups is known as a "segment." Although this article won't delve into the details of how Lucene segments work, it may be interesting to note that IndexWriter's optimize() method optimizes Lucene's index by consolidating all segments into a single segment for more efficient searching.

While IndexWriter is writing indexes, a file called "write.lock" is created. This file prevents other instances of IndexWriter from writing to the index concurrently. Calling IndexWriter's close() method removes this file and makes the index available for writing by another IndexWriter.

Lucene keeps track of each segment in the index using a file called "segments". During indexing, it occasionally becomes necessary for Lucene to update the segments file to keep it synchronized with the segments in the index. While this synchronization is going on, Lucene creates a "commit.lock" file to prevent concurrent updates of the segments file. Once the segments file is in sync, the commit.lock file is removed.

What would happen if you were to write to an index while it's being searched on? You may write to the index (either by adding new documents or re-creating the index from scratch) while it's being searched, but doing so may have undesirable effects on the search results. The worst side effect that I've seen is a document appearing out of order in the Hits collection. Depending on how important the ordering is to you, it may be best to create your indexes off-line (i.e., in another directory) and then rename the directory to become the current index.

Searching
Now that you've built an index, it's time to perform search queries against it. ProductSearcher (see Listing 5) shows how to do this.

To search a Lucene index you need an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Searcher. Two subclasses of Searcher come with Lucene. IndexSearcher is for searching a single Lucene index while MultiSearcher is used to search multiple indexes at once. Only the product catalog index will be searched, so IndexSearcher is the best choice for this example. It's constructed given the path to the index.

Searcher searcher = new IndexSearcher(indexPath);

Next you must construct a Query object. The best way to do this is to use the parse() method of org.apache.lucene.queryParser.QueryParser. Create an instance of QueryParser, passing the name of the default field (the field that's searched upon by default) and an analyzer to the constructor. Then call parse() on the QueryParser instance passing the query string. An instance of org.apache .lucene.search.Query will be returned.

QueryParser queryParser = new QueryParser("keywords", new StopAnalyzer());
Query query = queryParser.parse("cat food");

Note: QueryParser is not thread-safe. A new instance of QueryParser should be created for each thread.

For this example the choice of query string is hard coded as "cat food". This query will result in all documents containing either "cat" or "food", but not necessarily both. It's possible to require that a document's keyword field contain "cat" and "food" when searching. Simply place a plus (+) sign in front of each word so that the search string will be "+cat +food" to require resulting documents to contain both "cat" and "food" in their keyword field. More advanced search options will be discussed later.

Next make a call to the Searcher's search() method, passing in the Query object.

Hits hits = searcher.search(query);

The search() method returns an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Hits. The Hits class represents a collection of documents matching the search criteria, along with each document's relevancy score. These scores range from 0.0 to 1.0 where 1.0 is considered highly relevant and 0.0 is considered completely irrelevant (and not included in the Hits collection).

Finally, cycle through each Document returned in the Hits object displaying the SKU and name of the product along with its relevancy score.

for (int i = 0; i < hits.length(); i++) {
Document document = hits.doc(i);
float score = hits.score(i);
System.out.println(document.get("sku") + " :: " +
document.get("name") + " :: " + score);
}

Advanced Queries
Up until now, the queries have been relatively simple ones such as "cat food" and "+cat +food". QueryParser has a powerful selection of query operators to facilitate more complex searches. Table 2 lists all of QueryParser's operators.

Wildcard queries are fairly straightforward. The "*" operator can be replaced by zero or more characters to match a word. The "?" operator is replaced by exactly one character when matching. For example, "ca*" will match "cat", "car", "cap", or "candle", while "ca?" will match "cat", "car", and "cap", but not "candle". This is consistent with the behavior of "*" and "?" on a DOS or Unix command line.

The tilde (~) character, when used alone, performs a fuzzy search, matching words that are spelled similarly. For example, "cat~" will match "cat", but it will also match "car" and "rat" because these words are similarly spelled.

Surrounding two or more words with quotes (" ") produces a phrase. When two or more words are part of a phrase, those words must appear together in order to be considered a match. For example, ""dog food"" will match documents where "dog" is immediately followed by "food".

If a tilde and a number follow a phrase, then a proximity search is performed. For example, ""dog food"~10" will produce results where "dog" and "food" are found within 10 words of each other, but not necessarily adjacent to each other.

The carat (^) is a term booster. What this means is that any word followed by a carat is considered to have higher relevance than words not followed by a carat. For example, "dog^ kennel" will match where the document contains "dog" or "kennel", but will give a higher relevance to documents containing "dog".

The Boolean operators, AND, OR, and NOT behave as you would expect them to. For example, "(cat AND food) OR bird" returns all documents containing "cat" and "food" along with all documents that contain "bird". "cat NOT food" returns all documents containing "cat", but not containing "food". As you have seen before in the simple "cat food" example, OR is the default conjunction operator.

As shown in the previous example, parentheses can be used to group terms into subqueries.

As discussed, the plus sign (+) requires that a word or phrase exist in a field. Conversely, the minus sign (-) prohibits a word from appearing in the results and is roughly equivalent to NOT. For example, "dog -food" returns all documents containing "dog" but not containing "food".

Finally, there are times when you may want to search multiple fields. When constructing a QueryParser, you must specify a default field to be searched upon. Unless you specify otherwise, any words in your query will be looked for in the default field. In the examples, "keywords" is the default field. You can search on nondefault fields (assuming that they're indexed) by using a colon (:). For example, had the name field been tokenized and indexed, the query string "+cat +name:nummies" would return all documents in which the keywords field contains "cat" and the name field contains "nummies".

Customizing Lucene
While Lucene comes with an impressive set of functionality, you may still find that you want it to do something more or different than is available out of the box. As a search framework, Lucene provides several hooks for you to extend and/or modify its behavior.

In the previous examples, the analyzer chosen was StopAnalyzer. Underneath the covers, Stop-Analyzer uses LetterTokenizer to tokenize text into individual words. LetterTokenizer treats any nonalphabetic character as a delimiter. This is fine in most cases, but what if you want to tokenize text that contains numeric characters ("0" - "9") as well as alphabetic characters? This would be desirable if the keyword text contains part numbers or model numbers. LetterTokenizer wouldn't help in this case.

Listing 6 defines AlphanumericTokenizer, a tokenizer that works like LetterTokenizer except for one small difference: it treats numeric characters as token characters along with alphabetic characters. It does this by subclassing LetterTokenizer and overriding the isTokenChar() method to return the results of LetterTokenizer's isTokenChar() implementation OR'd with a call to Character.isDigit().

AlphanumStopAnalyzer (see Listing 7) is an analyzer that uses AlphanumericTokenizer. The stop-word behavior of StopAnalyzer is still desired, so AlphanumericTokenizer is wrapped with a StopFilter. To normalize the text to lowercase, StopFilter is then wrapped with LowercaseFilter. AlphanumStopAnalyzer is functionally equivalent to StopAnalyzer, except, since it uses AlphanumericTokenizer, it does not treat numeric characters as delimiters. To try out AlphanumStopAnalyzer, use it in place of StopAnalyzer in both ProductIndexer and ProductSearcher. Be sure to reindex with ProductIndexer before searching the index with the new analyzer.

Suppose that synonym-matching capability is required so that "cat" will match "kitten", "kitty", or "feline". AliasFilter (see Listing 8) is a subclass of TokenFilter that does this. AliasFilter retrieves its synonym list from entries in AliasFilter.properties. For example:

cat=feline kitten kitty
dog=canine puppy mutt
food=feed chow
parrot=bird

With each invocation of next(), AliasFilter first checks to see if there are any synonyms in the alias stack. If there are, it pops the next alias off the stack and returns it. Otherwise, AliasFilter retrieves the next token from the input TokenStream, adds any aliases that may exist to the alias stack, and then returns the next token.

AliasAnalyzer (see Listing 9) constructs a TokenStream that does everything the TokenStream from Alphanum-StopAnalyzer does, but it also uses AliasFilter to add synonyms to the TokenStream. To try AliasAnalyzer, use it as your analyzer instead of StopAnalyzer in both ProductIndexer and ProductSearch. Again, be sure to reindex before searching.

When trying AliasFilter you may discover some strange, albeit desirable, behavior. Search for "feline". Even though there are no aliases for feline, all cat-related products appear in the search results. Why? When you use AliasAnalyzer to search for "feline", the token stream does not expand beyond "feline". So why do "cat" products appear? The reason is, you also used AliasAnalyzer to index the products. When you indexed a product containing "cat", AliasAnalyzer expanded the token stream to include "kitten", "kitty", and "feline" in the index. When searching for "feline" it will be found in products whose token stream was expanded to include "feline". In effect, you get an automatic two-way aliasing between "cat" and "feline", even though it appears to be only one way in AliasFilter.properties.

Another common problem in searching is paging the results. A search query could return anywhere from zero results to a seemingly infinite number of result documents. Good usability practices suggest that you page the results, showing the user only a handful at a time. This can be accomplished in Lucene using result filters.

To create a result filter, you must subclass org.apache.lucene.search.Filter. The only required method is the bits() method. It will return a java.util.BitSet where each bit represents a document in the result set. If the bit is true, the document will be returned in Hits, otherwise it won't be returned.

PageFilter (see Listing 10) is an example of a Filter that's used to paginate search results. Given a page number and a page size, PageFilter will pare down Lucene's result set to a specific page's subset of documents. It does this by creating a BitSet big enough to hold the maximum number of result bits and then looping through the bits that need to be turned on. To use PageFilter, change ProductSearcher's call to search() to look like this:

Hits hits = searcher.search(query,new PageFilter(1,20));

This new call to search() will result in showing only the second set of 20 results.

Conclusion
Building a full-featured search engine can be a daunting task. But, thanks to Lucene, much of the complicated details are abstracted behind an easy-to-use API. We've seen how easy it can be to create an index for searching practically any type of information. We've also seen how Lucene is flexible and can be extended to satisfy custom indexing and searching requirements.

Resources

  • Jakarta Lucene: http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene
  • NLucene, the .NET implementation of Lucene at SourceForge: http://sourceforge.net/projects/nlucene
  • JGuru FAQ on Lucene: www.jguru.com/faq/Lucene
  • About Lucene's creator, Doug Cutting: http://lucene.sourceforge.net/background.html

    SIDEBAR
    Index Components
    A Lucene index is a collection of documents organized in a way that allows quick retrieval of information when arbitrarily queried upon.

    Each document (implemented by org.apache.lucene.document.Document) in a Lucene index is made up of one or more fields that are name-value pairs, much like entries in a HashMap. A document can contain as much or as little information as is required to be searched upon. For example, a Lucene document could contain the complete contents of a Web page, text file, e-mail, etc. On the other hand, a Lucene document may contain only a minimal set of metadata, such as keywords, along with a URL, a product SKU, or some other identifying information used to reference a full information source stored outside of Lucene (such as in a file system or a relational database).

    Each field in a document can be defined as being any combination of stored, indexed, and tokenized. If a field is stored, its contents are fully retrievable upon a successful search. If a field is indexed, its content may be referenced in a query and searched upon. If a field is tokenized, its content is broken into one or more tokens (or words) prior to being indexed.

    Fields can be created using org.apache.lucene.document.Field. The Field class has several static factory methods that make short work of creating field entries. Table 3 illustrates these static methods and the types of Fields that they create.

    Why would you want to index a field, but not store it? Consider a field that contains keywords for your document: chances are you'll never display or perform any processing of this field, but you still want to be able to search upon it. By indexing it you're making the field searchable, but by not storing it, you're saving space because the text is not written verbatim to the index. On the other hand, you may want to store some data so that it can be retrieved later but not actually be able to search upon it. In that case, you'd choose a field that's stored but not indexed. When defining your fields, be mindful of what those fields will be used for, and for efficiency's sake choose an appropriate field definition.

    SIDEBAR
    Search Components
    A Searcher (org.apache.lucene.search.Searcher) is used to access a Lucene index and query its contents. There are two subclasses of Searcher: IndexSearcher that searches a single index and MultiSearcher that searches one or more indexes and collects all the results in a single result set.

    Searches are performed by calling one of Searcher's search() methods and passing it a query (org.apache.lucene.search.Query). The search method returns an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Hits. The Hits class is an array-like collection of documents that matches your query. The documents are ordered in Hits by a relevancy score.

    A Query object can be constructed using org.apache.lucene.query-Parser.QueryParser. QueryParser's parse() method parses a query string that's written in its query language and builds an appropriate Query object for that query string. QueryParser also uses an Analyzer in performing the parsing of the query string. It's not required, but it is strongly recommended that you use the same Analyzer for parsing queries that you used when indexing your documents.

    SIDEBAR
    Text Analysis Components
    When a field is tokenized, its content is broken into one or more tokens or words. Facilitating this tokenization process is the notion of an analyzer (see Figure 1). An analyzer is any subclass of org.apache.lucene.analysis.Analyzer that defines the rules for tokenization.

    A token stream is an iterator that returns the next token with each call to its next() method or returns a null when there are no more tokens in the stream. Two important subclasses of TokenStream are Tokenizer and TokenFilter. Both of these classes are abstract and must be subclassed to define the specific rules on how to tokenize content.

    At the core of the tokenization process is a Tokenizer. A Tokenizer wraps an instance of java.io.Reader and performs the actual work of breaking a stream into individual tokens (not unlike the notion of a StringTokenizer).

    TokenFilters act as decorators of other TokenStreams. Token filters can be used to add, replace, or remove tokens from a TokenStream. For example, org.apache.lucene.analysis.PorterStemFilter is a TokenFilter that replaces each word in a TokenStream with its word stem (e.g., "painting" becomes "paint").

    Analyzers rely on token streams (subclasses of org.apache.lucene.analysis.TokenStream) in defining the tokenization rules. In fact, an analyzer is nothing more than a factory for creating instances of TokenStream.

    To see how the text analysis components are used together, consider some of the TokenStream and Analyzer implementations packaged with Lucene. StopAnalyzer is an analyzer whose job is to remove stop words (e.g., "and", "or", "the", etc.) from a tokenized stream. At the core of StopAnalyzer is an instance of LowerCaseTokenizer. It tokenizes the stream into individual words, normalizing them to lowercase as it goes, where any nonalphabetic character is considered a delimiter. An instance of StopFilter decorates LowerCaseTokenizer, removing stop words from the stream as they're found. StopAnalyzer's tokenStream() method is merely a factory method that returns the decorator chain made up of LowerCaseTokenizer and StopFilter.

    About Craig Walls
    Craig Walls is the manager of Internet development for a Dallas, Texas-based retailer. He has eight years of experience in software development, six in Java. Craig is a Sun Certified Java programmer and a Sun Certified architect for the Java platform. He holds a BS in computer science from New Mexico State University.

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    Advances in technology and ubiquitous connectivity have made the utilization of a dispersed workforce more common. Whether that remote team is located across the street or country, management styles/ approaches will have to be adjusted to accommodate this new dynamic. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Sagi Brody, Chief Technology Officer at Webair Internet Development Inc., focused on the challenges of managing remote teams, providing real-world examples that demonstrate what works and what do...
    Most people haven’t heard the word, “gamification,” even though they probably, and perhaps unwittingly, participate in it every day. Gamification is “the process of adding games or game-like elements to something (as a task) so as to encourage participation.” Further, gamification is about bringing game mechanics – rules, constructs, processes, and methods – into the real world in an effort to engage people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Robert Endo, owner and engagement manager of Intrepid D...
    The modern software development landscape consists of best practices and tools that allow teams to deliver software in a near-continuous manner. By adopting a culture of automation, measurement and sharing, the time to ship code has been greatly reduced, allowing for shorter release cycles and quicker feedback from customers and users. Still, with all of these tools and methods, how can teams stay on top of what is taking place across their infrastructure and codebase? Hopping between services a...
    Learn how IoT, cloud, social networks and last but not least, humans, can be integrated into a seamless integration of cooperative organisms both cybernetic and biological. This has been enabled by recent advances in IoT device capabilities, messaging frameworks, presence and collaboration services, where devices can share information and make independent and human assisted decisions based upon social status from other entities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Heydt, founder of Seamless...
    Mobile testing is getting harder: more devices, multiple operating systems, higher quality expectations and shorter development cycles. In his session at DevOps Summit, Tom Chavez, Senior Evangelist at SOASTA, discussed the seven steps to improving your mobile testing process. Tom Chavez, with 20+ years of experience as a product manager in software development tools, works in product management at SOASTA, the leader in performance analytics. He has worked across the Silicon Valley at industr...
    The IoT's basic concept of collecting data from as many sources possible to drive better decision making, create process innovation and realize additional revenue has been in use at large enterprises with deep pockets for decades. So what has changed? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Prasanna Sivaramakrishnan, Solutions Architect at Red Hat, discussed the impact commodity hardware, ubiquitous connectivity, and innovations in open source software are having on the connected universe of people, thi...
    Rapid innovation, changing business landscapes, and new IT demands force businesses to make changes quickly. The DevOps approach is a way to increase business agility through collaboration, communication, and integration across different teams in the IT organization. In his session at @DevOpsSummit, Chris Van Tuin, Chief Technologist for the Western US at Red Hat, discussed: The acceleration of application delivery for the business with DevOps
    For it to be SOA – let alone SOA done right – we need to pin down just what "SOA done wrong" might be. First-generation SOA with Web Services and ESBs, perhaps? But then there's second-generation, REST-based SOA. More lightweight and cloud-friendly, but many REST-based SOA practices predate the microservices wave. Today, microservices and containers go hand in hand – only the details of "container-oriented architecture" are largely on the drawing board – and are not likely to look much like S...
    The Microservices architectural pattern promises increased DevOps agility and can help enable continuous delivery of software. This session is for developers who are transforming existing applications to cloud-native applications, or creating new microservices style applications. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Jim Bugwadia, CEO of Nirmata, introduced best practices, patterns, challenges, and solutions for the development and operations of microservices style applications. He discussed how a...
    There are so many tools and techniques for data analytics that even for a data scientist the choices, possible systems, and even the types of data can be daunting. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Harrold, Global CTO for Big Data Solutions for EMC Corporation, showed how to perform a simple, but meaningful analysis of social sentiment data using freely available tools that take only minutes to download and install. Participants received the download information, scripts, and complete end-t...
    For manufacturers, the Internet of Things (IoT) represents a jumping-off point for innovation, jobs, and revenue creation. But to adequately seize the opportunity, manufacturers must design devices that are interconnected, can continually sense their environment and process huge amounts of data. As a first step, manufacturers must embrace a new product development ecosystem in order to support these products.
    Clearly the way forward is to move to cloud be it bare metal, VMs or containers. One aspect of the current public clouds that is slowing this cloud migration is cloud lock-in. Every cloud vendor is trying to make it very difficult to move out once a customer has chosen their cloud. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Naveen Nimmu, CEO of Clouber, Inc., advocated that making the inter-cloud migration as simple as changing airlines would help the entire industry to quickly adopt the cloud without ...
    Everyone talks about continuous integration and continuous delivery but those are just two ends of the pipeline. In the middle of DevOps is continuous testing (CT), and many organizations are struggling to implement continuous testing effectively. After all, without continuous testing there is no delivery. And Lab-As-A-Service (LaaS) enhances the CT with dynamic on-demand self-serve test topologies. CT together with LAAS make a powerful combination that perfectly serves complex software developm...
    @CloudExpo Stories
    SYS-CON Events announced today that ContentMX, the marketing technology and services company with a singular mission to increase engagement and drive more conversations for enterprise, channel and SMB technology marketers, has been named “Sponsor & Exhibitor Lounge Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. “CloudExpo is a great opportunity to start a conversation with new prospects, but what happens after the...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that AppNeta, the leader in performance insight for business-critical web applications, will exhibit and present at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. AppNeta is the only application performance monitoring (APM) company to provide solutions for all applications – applications you develop internally, business-critical SaaS applications you use and the networks that deli...
    As organizations shift towards IT-as-a-service models, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and now cloud environments grows with it. Commvault can ensure protection, access and E-Discovery of your data – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud, or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enterprise. In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Randy De Meno, Chief Technologist - Windows Products and Microsoft Part...
    The cloud era has reached the stage where it is no longer a question of whether a company should migrate, but when. Enterprises have embraced the outsourcing of where their various applications are stored and who manages them, saving significant investment along the way. Plus, the cloud has become a defining competitive edge. Companies that fail to successfully adapt risk failure. The media, of course, continues to extol the virtues of the cloud, including how easy it is to get there. Migrating...
    As machines are increasingly connected to the internet, it’s becoming easier to discover the numerous ways Industrial IoT (IIoT) is helping to shape the business world. This is exactly why we have decided to take a closer look at this pervasive movement and to examine the desire to connect more things! Now if you need a refresher on IIoT and how it is changing the world, take a moment and listen to Greg Gorbach with ARC Advisory Group. Gorbach believes, "IIoT will significantly change the worl...
    SYS-CON Events announced today the Docker Meets Kubernetes – Intro into the Kubernetes World, being held June 9, 2016, in conjunction with 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Register for 'Docker Meets Kubernetes Workshop' Here! This workshop led by Sebastian Scheele, co-founder of Loodse, introduces participants to Kubernetes (container orchestration). Through a combination of instructor-led presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on labs, participants learn ...
    The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discuss how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. We'll cite examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He'll also highlight how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. MangoApps provides modern company intranets and team collaboration software, allowing workers to stay connected and productive from anywhere in the world and from any device. For more information, please visit https://www.mangoapps.com/.
    SYS-CON Events announced today the How to Create Angular 2 Clients for the Cloud Workshop, being held June 7, 2016, in conjunction with 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Angular 2 is a complete re-write of the popular framework AngularJS. Programming in Angular 2 is greatly simplified. Now it’s a component-based well-performing framework. The immersive one-day workshop led by Yakov Fain, a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in Embedded and IoT solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/Big Data, HPC and ...
    In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Cole, Director of Solutions Engineering at Peak 10, will discuss how the newest technology advances are reducing the cost and complexity of traditional business continuity and disaster recovery solutions. Attendees will: Learn why having a full disaster recovery strategy is more important now than ever before Explore the key drivers of a successful disaster recovery solution Achieve measurable operational and business value from a disaster recovery ...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Hanu Software will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Leveraging best-in-class people, processes, and technologies, Hanu provides high-quality, high-value software development and business process outsourcing services to independent software vendors (ISVs) and enterprises.
    How will your company move to the cloud while ensuring a solid security posture? Organizations from small to large are increasingly adopting cloud solutions to deliver essential business services at a much lower cost. According to cyber security experts, the frequency and severity of cyber-attacks are on the rise, causing alarm to businesses and customers across a variety of industries. To defend against exploits like these, a company must adopt a comprehensive security defense strategy that is ...
    What a difference a year makes. Organizations aren’t just talking about IoT possibilities, it is now baked into their core business strategy. With IoT, billions of devices generating data from different companies on different networks around the globe need to interact. From efficiency to better customer insights to completely new business models, IoT will turn traditional business models upside down. In the new customer-centric age, the key to success is delivering critical services and apps wit...
    Join us at Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo 2016 – June 7-9 at the Javits Center in New York City and November 1-3 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – and deliver your unique message in a way that is striking and unforgettable by taking advantage of SYS-CON's unmatched high-impact, result-driven event / media packages.
    In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, will provide an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life ...
    The initial debate is over: Any enterprise with a serious commitment to IT is migrating to the cloud. But things are not so simple. There is a complex mix of on-premises, colocated, and public-cloud deployments. In this power panel at 18th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the present state of cloud from the C-level view, and how great companies and rock star executives can use cloud computing to meet their most ambitious and disruptive business ...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. MobiDev is a software company that develops and delivers turn-key mobile apps, websites, web services, and complex software systems for startups and enterprises. Since 2009 it has grown from a small group of passionate engineers and business managers to a full-scale mobile software company with over 200 develope...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that BMC Software has been named "Siver Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. BMC is a global leader in innovative software solutions that help businesses transform into digital enterprises for the ultimate competitive advantage. BMC Digital Enterprise Management is a set of innovative IT solutions designed to make digital business fast, seamless, and optimized from mainframe to mo...
    As cloud and storage projections continue to rise, the number of organizations moving to the cloud is escalating and it is clear cloud storage is here to stay. However, is it secure? Data is the lifeblood for government entities, countries, cloud service providers and enterprises alike and losing or exposing that data can have disastrous results. There are new concepts for data storage on the horizon that will deliver secure solutions for storing and moving sensitive data around the world. ...

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    Sponsorship opportunities are now open for Cloud Expo 2016 New York, June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Convention Center in New York, NY, and Cloud Expo 2016 Silicon Valley, Nov. 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For sponsorship, exhibit opportunities and show prospectus, please contact Carmen Gonzalez, carmen (at) sys-con.com.
    Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Include

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    Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

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    Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Included

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    CHOU
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    HARRISON
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    LYNN
    CodeFutures

    HEABERLIN
    Windstream

    RAMA
    MURTHY

    Virtusa

    BOSTOCK
    IndependenceIT

    DE MENO
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    GRILLI
    Adobe

    WILLIAMS
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    Alert Logic

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    SingleHop

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    JACKSON
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    IBM

    HAZARD
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    GENBAND

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    Emcien

    LEVESQUE
    Windstream

    IVANOV
    StorPool

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    Intellyx

    BUDHANI
    Soha

    HATHAWAY
    IBM Watson

    TOLL
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    Microsoft

    BEARFIELD
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    PILUSO
    SIASMSP

    HOLT
    IBM Cloudant

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    CTS

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    Modulus

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    Testimonials
    This week I had the pleasure of delivering the opening keynote at Cloud Expo New York. It was amazing to be back in the great city of New York with thousands of cloud enthusiasts eager to learn about the next step on their journey to embracing a cloud-first worldl."
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    How does Cloud Expo do it every year? Another INCREDIBLE show - our heads are spinning - so fun and informative."
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    @CloudExpo Blogs
    Our CTO, Anders Wallgren, recently sat down to take part in the “B2B Nation: IT” podcast — the series dedicated to serving the IT professional community with expert opinions and advice on the world of information technology. Listen to the great conversation, where Anders shares his thoughts on DevOps lessons from large enterprises, the growth of microservices and containers, and more.
    SYS-CON Events announced today the How to Create Angular 2 Clients for the Cloud Workshop, being held June 7, 2016, in conjunction with 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Angular 2 is a complete re-write of the popular framework AngularJS. Programming in Angular 2 is greatly simplified. Now it’s a component-based well-performing framework. The immersive one-day workshop led by Yakov Fain, a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay, will provide you with everything you wanted to know about Angular 2...
    One look at the comments section of an April column on digital marketing in TechCrunch, and it becomes obvious that contributor Samuel Scott, the marketing and communications director for data analytics software firm Logz.io, pushed a few hot buttons with his take on marketing tech. Scott argues for a back-to-basics approach to marketing that roots digital strategies firmly in old-school tradition and PR principles. He calls out the communications industry for its reliance on “an echo chamber of meaningless buzzwords” in a piece now shared nearly 16,000 times, with more than 140 comments from...
    In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, will provide an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle manage...
    Big Data analytics and the Internet of Things are still relative newcomers. Given how quickly technology moves, though, it’s not surprising that their next incarnations are already being talked about: cognitive analytics and a much-grown Internet of Things (IoT). We all know about the Internet of Things: it’s data from a host of Web-connected devices that can be analyzed and studied, just like traditional data analytics. But what is cognitive analytics? Think back to old sci-fi shows. Remember the insanely smart, almost-human robot sidekick? Cognitive analytics isn’t there yet, but it does em...
    The current version of Angular is Release Candidate 1. This version changed the way how the framework is distributed – it comes as a set of scoped npm packages now. Any imports of the Angular classes will be done from @angular instead of angular2, for example: import {bootstrap} from [email protected]/platform-browser-dynamic'; import {Component} from [email protected]/core';
    Today nearly all of us have our information stored on the cloud. It’s a very easy solution that allows users to seamlessly create back-ups of photos, contacts and other personal information, giving users access to their accounts anywhere from any device. Perhaps its most prized feature is that it has no storage limits, unlike mobile devices and PCs. There is, however, a downside to cloud services. Although it is useful in storing data, it could be the reason data is lost. Recently, the celebrity iCloud hack went to trial. The hacker admitted he acquired the credentials by spear phishing his v...
    As AT&Ts VP of Domain 2.0 architecture writes one aspect of their Domain 2.0 strategy is a goal to embrace a Microservices Application Architecture. One page 9 they describe how these envisage them fitting into the ECOMP architecture: "The initial steps of the recipes include a homing and placement task using constraints specified in the requests. ‘Homing and Placement' are micro-services involving orchestration, inventory, and controllers responsible for infrastructure, network, and application. The goal is to allow algorithms to use real-time network data and determine the most efficient u...
    I love EMC World (though I can’t say the same about Las Vega$). I get an opportunity to talk to customers who are at the dirty and grimy frontline of trying to derive value from all of this Big Data hoopla. They teach me tons! One theme that came up several times in our conversations was the following: “I can’t get the Business to engage in an envisioning type of engagement. We have lost their trust. So we are forced to start our Big Data journey from the technology.”
    More is being required today of network infrastructure than ever before, due in part to the changing latency and bandwidth needs of modern applications. Wide area networks (“WANs”) are feeling the pressure, especially those that use many technologies from different services providers, are geographically diverse and are stretched to the limit by increased video and cloud app usage. In view of these challenges, hybrid WAN architectures with advanced application-level traffic routing are of particular interest. They combine the reliability of private lines for critical business applications wit...
    Agile teams report the lowest rate of measuring non-functional requirements. What does this mean for the evolution of quality in this era of Continuous Everything? To explore how the rise of SDLC acceleration trends such as Agile, DevOps, and Continuous Delivery are impacting software quality, Parasoft conducted a survey about measuring and monitoring non-functional requirements (NFRs). Here's a glimpse at what we discovered and what it means for the evolution of quality in this era of Continuous Everything...
    In the rush to compete in the digital age, a successful digital transformation is essential, but many organizations are setting themselves up for failure. There’s a common misconception that the process is just about technology, but it’s not. It’s about your business. It shouldn’t be treated as an isolated IT project; it should be driven by business needs with the committed involvement of a range of stakeholders.
    The Internet of Things has the potential to completely change how we live and work. It’s already causing an evolution in the workplace - especially where IT is involved. By 2020, there will be over 38 billion connected devices. In the interest of convenience and efficiency, we're shoving embedded computers into pretty much every single product and appliance we use, from fridges and blenders to thermostats and security systems. Wi-Fi connected device are no longer an oddity or for use simply by the elite; they're a regularity in both our personal and professional lives.
    Creating a unified toolchain is increasingly important for today’s modern software delivery approaches. Providing context, visibility and compliance around the growing number of tools and processes being used today is core to our mission of connecting the world of software delivery. Today, we are pleased to announce a new version of TeamForge that extends your ability to integrate activity data from the cloud hosted version of JIRA Software and, for DevOps, Chef, into a centralized platform. In addition, we’ve strengthened our capabilities for enterprise Git by supporting both commit- and pull...
    While there has been much ado about interoperability, there are still no real solutions, same as last year and the year before that. The large EHR vendors who continue to dominate the market still maintain that interoperability is all but solved, still can't connect EHRs across the continuum causing frustration by providers and a disservice to patients. The ONC pays lip service to the problem, but that is about it. It is time for the healthcare industry to consider alternatives like middleware which has been proven in other industries such as finance, retail and hospitality.