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Search-Enable Your Application with Lucene
Search-Enable Your Application with Lucene

The e-commerce Web site that I work on has seen several incarnations of its search feature. We started with plain vanilla SQL using "like" clauses, but this didn't perform well and left a lot to be desired in language features such as stemming (e.g., "paint" = "painter" = "painting") and synonym matching (e.g., "cat" = "feline"). Next we tried an off-the-shelf solution. This addressed our efficiency and language demands, but it was ridden with strange quirks and we were limited in how much we could customize its behavior.

Then we discovered Lucene. Lucene is an open-source search framework from Apache's Jakarta project. As a framework, Lucene provides you with the building blocks you need to build a search engine that meets your specific searching requirements. Lucene is flexible, fully customizable, and amazingly fast.

In this article I show you how to use Lucene to build a search solution for your application. Although my examples will be geared toward an e-commerce application, Lucene is flexible enough to be used on any application whether it's Web, desktop, or CD-ROM based.

I used version 1.2 of Lucene to develop the examples in this article. It can be downloaded from http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene. Lucene is self-contained, so you'll need only a JVM (v1.1.8 or higher) to use it. Place lucene-1.2.jar into your classpath and you're ready to start.

Indexing Documents
To build a Lucene index, first you'll need an instance of IndexWriter. The following lines of code create an IndexWriter for an index located at c:\myindex.

Analyzer analyzer = new StopAnalyzer();
writer = new IndexWriter("c:/myindex", analyzer, true);

The first argument to the constructor is the path where the index will be written. If the path doesn't already exist, Lucene will create it for you. The second argument is the Analyzer you want IndexWriter to use when tokenizing text. Here I used StopAnalyzer to remove stop words ("and," "or," "the," etc.) from the token stream. The last argument tells IndexWriter whether to create a new index or to add documents to an existing one. Passing true to the constructor will create the index from scratch; passing false will append to an existing index.

Now that you have an IndexWriter, you're ready to start adding documents to the index. The following code creates a simple document that represents a Web page and uses IndexWriter to add it to the index.

String url = "http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene";
String content = indexer.retrieveWebPageContent(url);
String keywords = indexer.extractKeywords(content);

Document doc = new Document();
doc.add(Field.UnIndexed("url", url));
doc.add(Field.UnStored("keywords", keywords));
doc.add(Field.Text("content", content));
writer.addDocument(doc);

In this example, the document contains the URL metadata for Lucene's homepage, a keywords field that contains search terms to match against in a search, and a "content" field that contains the full content of the Web page.

Once all documents have been added, all that remains is to close the index.

writer.close();

Although this example adds only a single (hard-coded) document to an index, it serves well as a "Hello World" example of how to create indexes using Lucene. The complete source code for this example is in Listing 1. (Listings 1-10 can be downloaded from www.sys-con.com/java/sourcec.cfm.)

For a more interesting example, suppose you're indexing a product catalog to be searched on an e-commerce Web site. A product is made up of a SKU, a name, a price, and some keywords to be searched on (see Listing 2). ProductIndexer (see Listing 3) is a convenience class used to add products to a Lucene index.

The constructor for ProductIndexer takes a string that's the path where the Lucene index will be built and a Boolean parameter that specifies whether a new index will be created or an existing index appended. ProductIndexer uses StopAnalyzer for tokenizing text.

The addProduct() method creates an instance of Document and translates the attributes of the Product into document fields. As in the simple example earlier, the "keywords" field is created as unstored so it can be searched upon but is unavailable for retrieval. The other fields are created as unindexed because these fields will be retrieved only after a successful search, not searched upon themselves.

The close() method closes the IndexWriter, making it available for searching. Before closing, however, a call is made to the IndexWriter's optimize() method to have Lucene optimize the index. Although it's entirely optional, it's generally a good idea to call optimize() if the indexing is finished for the time being and no further documents will be added to the index for a while.

ProductDBIndexer (see Listing 4) reads products from a "catalog" table in a relational database (see Table 1 for the products that I used) and uses ProductIndexer to add the products to Lucene's index. ProductDBIndexer takes two command-line arguments: the path in which to build the index and an optional "create" flag to indicate that the index should be built from scratch.

Lucene Index Structure
Lucene indexes are file based. If you look in the directory where you created the index, you'll find several files that define the Lucene index. Depending on how large your index is, you'll see several groups of files where each file in a group has the same name but a different extension. Each of these groups is known as a "segment." Although this article won't delve into the details of how Lucene segments work, it may be interesting to note that IndexWriter's optimize() method optimizes Lucene's index by consolidating all segments into a single segment for more efficient searching.

While IndexWriter is writing indexes, a file called "write.lock" is created. This file prevents other instances of IndexWriter from writing to the index concurrently. Calling IndexWriter's close() method removes this file and makes the index available for writing by another IndexWriter.

Lucene keeps track of each segment in the index using a file called "segments". During indexing, it occasionally becomes necessary for Lucene to update the segments file to keep it synchronized with the segments in the index. While this synchronization is going on, Lucene creates a "commit.lock" file to prevent concurrent updates of the segments file. Once the segments file is in sync, the commit.lock file is removed.

What would happen if you were to write to an index while it's being searched on? You may write to the index (either by adding new documents or re-creating the index from scratch) while it's being searched, but doing so may have undesirable effects on the search results. The worst side effect that I've seen is a document appearing out of order in the Hits collection. Depending on how important the ordering is to you, it may be best to create your indexes off-line (i.e., in another directory) and then rename the directory to become the current index.

Searching
Now that you've built an index, it's time to perform search queries against it. ProductSearcher (see Listing 5) shows how to do this.

To search a Lucene index you need an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Searcher. Two subclasses of Searcher come with Lucene. IndexSearcher is for searching a single Lucene index while MultiSearcher is used to search multiple indexes at once. Only the product catalog index will be searched, so IndexSearcher is the best choice for this example. It's constructed given the path to the index.

Searcher searcher = new IndexSearcher(indexPath);

Next you must construct a Query object. The best way to do this is to use the parse() method of org.apache.lucene.queryParser.QueryParser. Create an instance of QueryParser, passing the name of the default field (the field that's searched upon by default) and an analyzer to the constructor. Then call parse() on the QueryParser instance passing the query string. An instance of org.apache .lucene.search.Query will be returned.

QueryParser queryParser = new QueryParser("keywords", new StopAnalyzer());
Query query = queryParser.parse("cat food");

Note: QueryParser is not thread-safe. A new instance of QueryParser should be created for each thread.

For this example the choice of query string is hard coded as "cat food". This query will result in all documents containing either "cat" or "food", but not necessarily both. It's possible to require that a document's keyword field contain "cat" and "food" when searching. Simply place a plus (+) sign in front of each word so that the search string will be "+cat +food" to require resulting documents to contain both "cat" and "food" in their keyword field. More advanced search options will be discussed later.

Next make a call to the Searcher's search() method, passing in the Query object.

Hits hits = searcher.search(query);

The search() method returns an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Hits. The Hits class represents a collection of documents matching the search criteria, along with each document's relevancy score. These scores range from 0.0 to 1.0 where 1.0 is considered highly relevant and 0.0 is considered completely irrelevant (and not included in the Hits collection).

Finally, cycle through each Document returned in the Hits object displaying the SKU and name of the product along with its relevancy score.

for (int i = 0; i < hits.length(); i++) {
Document document = hits.doc(i);
float score = hits.score(i);
System.out.println(document.get("sku") + " :: " +
document.get("name") + " :: " + score);
}

Advanced Queries
Up until now, the queries have been relatively simple ones such as "cat food" and "+cat +food". QueryParser has a powerful selection of query operators to facilitate more complex searches. Table 2 lists all of QueryParser's operators.

Wildcard queries are fairly straightforward. The "*" operator can be replaced by zero or more characters to match a word. The "?" operator is replaced by exactly one character when matching. For example, "ca*" will match "cat", "car", "cap", or "candle", while "ca?" will match "cat", "car", and "cap", but not "candle". This is consistent with the behavior of "*" and "?" on a DOS or Unix command line.

The tilde (~) character, when used alone, performs a fuzzy search, matching words that are spelled similarly. For example, "cat~" will match "cat", but it will also match "car" and "rat" because these words are similarly spelled.

Surrounding two or more words with quotes (" ") produces a phrase. When two or more words are part of a phrase, those words must appear together in order to be considered a match. For example, ""dog food"" will match documents where "dog" is immediately followed by "food".

If a tilde and a number follow a phrase, then a proximity search is performed. For example, ""dog food"~10" will produce results where "dog" and "food" are found within 10 words of each other, but not necessarily adjacent to each other.

The carat (^) is a term booster. What this means is that any word followed by a carat is considered to have higher relevance than words not followed by a carat. For example, "dog^ kennel" will match where the document contains "dog" or "kennel", but will give a higher relevance to documents containing "dog".

The Boolean operators, AND, OR, and NOT behave as you would expect them to. For example, "(cat AND food) OR bird" returns all documents containing "cat" and "food" along with all documents that contain "bird". "cat NOT food" returns all documents containing "cat", but not containing "food". As you have seen before in the simple "cat food" example, OR is the default conjunction operator.

As shown in the previous example, parentheses can be used to group terms into subqueries.

As discussed, the plus sign (+) requires that a word or phrase exist in a field. Conversely, the minus sign (-) prohibits a word from appearing in the results and is roughly equivalent to NOT. For example, "dog -food" returns all documents containing "dog" but not containing "food".

Finally, there are times when you may want to search multiple fields. When constructing a QueryParser, you must specify a default field to be searched upon. Unless you specify otherwise, any words in your query will be looked for in the default field. In the examples, "keywords" is the default field. You can search on nondefault fields (assuming that they're indexed) by using a colon (:). For example, had the name field been tokenized and indexed, the query string "+cat +name:nummies" would return all documents in which the keywords field contains "cat" and the name field contains "nummies".

Customizing Lucene
While Lucene comes with an impressive set of functionality, you may still find that you want it to do something more or different than is available out of the box. As a search framework, Lucene provides several hooks for you to extend and/or modify its behavior.

In the previous examples, the analyzer chosen was StopAnalyzer. Underneath the covers, Stop-Analyzer uses LetterTokenizer to tokenize text into individual words. LetterTokenizer treats any nonalphabetic character as a delimiter. This is fine in most cases, but what if you want to tokenize text that contains numeric characters ("0" - "9") as well as alphabetic characters? This would be desirable if the keyword text contains part numbers or model numbers. LetterTokenizer wouldn't help in this case.

Listing 6 defines AlphanumericTokenizer, a tokenizer that works like LetterTokenizer except for one small difference: it treats numeric characters as token characters along with alphabetic characters. It does this by subclassing LetterTokenizer and overriding the isTokenChar() method to return the results of LetterTokenizer's isTokenChar() implementation OR'd with a call to Character.isDigit().

AlphanumStopAnalyzer (see Listing 7) is an analyzer that uses AlphanumericTokenizer. The stop-word behavior of StopAnalyzer is still desired, so AlphanumericTokenizer is wrapped with a StopFilter. To normalize the text to lowercase, StopFilter is then wrapped with LowercaseFilter. AlphanumStopAnalyzer is functionally equivalent to StopAnalyzer, except, since it uses AlphanumericTokenizer, it does not treat numeric characters as delimiters. To try out AlphanumStopAnalyzer, use it in place of StopAnalyzer in both ProductIndexer and ProductSearcher. Be sure to reindex with ProductIndexer before searching the index with the new analyzer.

Suppose that synonym-matching capability is required so that "cat" will match "kitten", "kitty", or "feline". AliasFilter (see Listing 8) is a subclass of TokenFilter that does this. AliasFilter retrieves its synonym list from entries in AliasFilter.properties. For example:

cat=feline kitten kitty
dog=canine puppy mutt
food=feed chow
parrot=bird

With each invocation of next(), AliasFilter first checks to see if there are any synonyms in the alias stack. If there are, it pops the next alias off the stack and returns it. Otherwise, AliasFilter retrieves the next token from the input TokenStream, adds any aliases that may exist to the alias stack, and then returns the next token.

AliasAnalyzer (see Listing 9) constructs a TokenStream that does everything the TokenStream from Alphanum-StopAnalyzer does, but it also uses AliasFilter to add synonyms to the TokenStream. To try AliasAnalyzer, use it as your analyzer instead of StopAnalyzer in both ProductIndexer and ProductSearch. Again, be sure to reindex before searching.

When trying AliasFilter you may discover some strange, albeit desirable, behavior. Search for "feline". Even though there are no aliases for feline, all cat-related products appear in the search results. Why? When you use AliasAnalyzer to search for "feline", the token stream does not expand beyond "feline". So why do "cat" products appear? The reason is, you also used AliasAnalyzer to index the products. When you indexed a product containing "cat", AliasAnalyzer expanded the token stream to include "kitten", "kitty", and "feline" in the index. When searching for "feline" it will be found in products whose token stream was expanded to include "feline". In effect, you get an automatic two-way aliasing between "cat" and "feline", even though it appears to be only one way in AliasFilter.properties.

Another common problem in searching is paging the results. A search query could return anywhere from zero results to a seemingly infinite number of result documents. Good usability practices suggest that you page the results, showing the user only a handful at a time. This can be accomplished in Lucene using result filters.

To create a result filter, you must subclass org.apache.lucene.search.Filter. The only required method is the bits() method. It will return a java.util.BitSet where each bit represents a document in the result set. If the bit is true, the document will be returned in Hits, otherwise it won't be returned.

PageFilter (see Listing 10) is an example of a Filter that's used to paginate search results. Given a page number and a page size, PageFilter will pare down Lucene's result set to a specific page's subset of documents. It does this by creating a BitSet big enough to hold the maximum number of result bits and then looping through the bits that need to be turned on. To use PageFilter, change ProductSearcher's call to search() to look like this:

Hits hits = searcher.search(query,new PageFilter(1,20));

This new call to search() will result in showing only the second set of 20 results.

Conclusion
Building a full-featured search engine can be a daunting task. But, thanks to Lucene, much of the complicated details are abstracted behind an easy-to-use API. We've seen how easy it can be to create an index for searching practically any type of information. We've also seen how Lucene is flexible and can be extended to satisfy custom indexing and searching requirements.

Resources

  • Jakarta Lucene: http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene
  • NLucene, the .NET implementation of Lucene at SourceForge: http://sourceforge.net/projects/nlucene
  • JGuru FAQ on Lucene: www.jguru.com/faq/Lucene
  • About Lucene's creator, Doug Cutting: http://lucene.sourceforge.net/background.html

    SIDEBAR
    Index Components
    A Lucene index is a collection of documents organized in a way that allows quick retrieval of information when arbitrarily queried upon.

    Each document (implemented by org.apache.lucene.document.Document) in a Lucene index is made up of one or more fields that are name-value pairs, much like entries in a HashMap. A document can contain as much or as little information as is required to be searched upon. For example, a Lucene document could contain the complete contents of a Web page, text file, e-mail, etc. On the other hand, a Lucene document may contain only a minimal set of metadata, such as keywords, along with a URL, a product SKU, or some other identifying information used to reference a full information source stored outside of Lucene (such as in a file system or a relational database).

    Each field in a document can be defined as being any combination of stored, indexed, and tokenized. If a field is stored, its contents are fully retrievable upon a successful search. If a field is indexed, its content may be referenced in a query and searched upon. If a field is tokenized, its content is broken into one or more tokens (or words) prior to being indexed.

    Fields can be created using org.apache.lucene.document.Field. The Field class has several static factory methods that make short work of creating field entries. Table 3 illustrates these static methods and the types of Fields that they create.

    Why would you want to index a field, but not store it? Consider a field that contains keywords for your document: chances are you'll never display or perform any processing of this field, but you still want to be able to search upon it. By indexing it you're making the field searchable, but by not storing it, you're saving space because the text is not written verbatim to the index. On the other hand, you may want to store some data so that it can be retrieved later but not actually be able to search upon it. In that case, you'd choose a field that's stored but not indexed. When defining your fields, be mindful of what those fields will be used for, and for efficiency's sake choose an appropriate field definition.

    SIDEBAR
    Search Components
    A Searcher (org.apache.lucene.search.Searcher) is used to access a Lucene index and query its contents. There are two subclasses of Searcher: IndexSearcher that searches a single index and MultiSearcher that searches one or more indexes and collects all the results in a single result set.

    Searches are performed by calling one of Searcher's search() methods and passing it a query (org.apache.lucene.search.Query). The search method returns an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Hits. The Hits class is an array-like collection of documents that matches your query. The documents are ordered in Hits by a relevancy score.

    A Query object can be constructed using org.apache.lucene.query-Parser.QueryParser. QueryParser's parse() method parses a query string that's written in its query language and builds an appropriate Query object for that query string. QueryParser also uses an Analyzer in performing the parsing of the query string. It's not required, but it is strongly recommended that you use the same Analyzer for parsing queries that you used when indexing your documents.

    SIDEBAR
    Text Analysis Components
    When a field is tokenized, its content is broken into one or more tokens or words. Facilitating this tokenization process is the notion of an analyzer (see Figure 1). An analyzer is any subclass of org.apache.lucene.analysis.Analyzer that defines the rules for tokenization.

    A token stream is an iterator that returns the next token with each call to its next() method or returns a null when there are no more tokens in the stream. Two important subclasses of TokenStream are Tokenizer and TokenFilter. Both of these classes are abstract and must be subclassed to define the specific rules on how to tokenize content.

    At the core of the tokenization process is a Tokenizer. A Tokenizer wraps an instance of java.io.Reader and performs the actual work of breaking a stream into individual tokens (not unlike the notion of a StringTokenizer).

    TokenFilters act as decorators of other TokenStreams. Token filters can be used to add, replace, or remove tokens from a TokenStream. For example, org.apache.lucene.analysis.PorterStemFilter is a TokenFilter that replaces each word in a TokenStream with its word stem (e.g., "painting" becomes "paint").

    Analyzers rely on token streams (subclasses of org.apache.lucene.analysis.TokenStream) in defining the tokenization rules. In fact, an analyzer is nothing more than a factory for creating instances of TokenStream.

    To see how the text analysis components are used together, consider some of the TokenStream and Analyzer implementations packaged with Lucene. StopAnalyzer is an analyzer whose job is to remove stop words (e.g., "and", "or", "the", etc.) from a tokenized stream. At the core of StopAnalyzer is an instance of LowerCaseTokenizer. It tokenizes the stream into individual words, normalizing them to lowercase as it goes, where any nonalphabetic character is considered a delimiter. An instance of StopFilter decorates LowerCaseTokenizer, removing stop words from the stream as they're found. StopAnalyzer's tokenStream() method is merely a factory method that returns the decorator chain made up of LowerCaseTokenizer and StopFilter.

    About Craig Walls
    Craig Walls is the manager of Internet development for a Dallas, Texas-based retailer. He has eight years of experience in software development, six in Java. Craig is a Sun Certified Java programmer and a Sun Certified architect for the Java platform. He holds a BS in computer science from New Mexico State University.

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    I tried to implement the PageFilter, but it did not return any results. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks

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    A look across the tech landscape at the disruptive technologies that are increasing in prominence and speculate as to which will be most impactful for communications – namely, AI and Cloud Computing. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Curtis Peterson, VP of Operations at RingCentral, highlighted the current challenges of these transformative technologies and shared strategies for preparing your organization for these changes. This “view from the top” outlined the latest trends and developments i...
    For organizations that have amassed large sums of software complexity, taking a microservices approach is the first step toward DevOps and continuous improvement / development. Integrating system-level analysis with microservices makes it easier to change and add functionality to applications at any time without the increase of risk. Before you start big transformation projects or a cloud migration, make sure these changes won’t take down your entire organization.
    Hardware virtualization and cloud computing allowed us to increase resource utilization and increase our flexibility to respond to business demand. Docker Containers are the next quantum leap - Are they?! Databases always represented an additional set of challenges unique to running workloads requiring a maximum of I/O, network, CPU resources combined with data locality.
    What's the role of an IT self-service portal when you get to continuous delivery and Infrastructure as Code? This general session showed how to create the continuous delivery culture and eight accelerators for leading the change. Don Demcsak is a DevOps and Cloud Native Modernization Principal for Dell EMC based out of New Jersey. He is a former, long time, Microsoft Most Valuable Professional, specializing in building and architecting Application Delivery Pipelines for hybrid legacy, and cloud ...
    When growing capacity and power in the data center, the architectural trade-offs between server scale-up vs. scale-out continue to be debated. Both approaches are valid: scale-out adds multiple, smaller servers running in a distributed computing model, while scale-up adds fewer, more powerful servers that are capable of running larger workloads. It’s worth noting that there are additional, unique advantages that scale-up architectures offer. One big advantage is large memory and compute capacity...
    No hype cycles or predictions of zillions of things here. IoT is big. You get it. You know your business and have great ideas for a business transformation strategy. What comes next? Time to make it happen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jay Mason, Associate Partner at M&S Consulting, presented a step-by-step plan to develop your technology implementation strategy. He discussed the evaluation of communication standards and IoT messaging protocols, data analytics considerations, edge-to-cloud tec...
    In his session at Cloud Expo, Alan Winters, U.S. Head of Business Development at MobiDev, presented a success story of an entrepreneur who has both suffered through and benefited from offshore development across multiple businesses: The smart choice, or how to select the right offshore development partner Warning signs, or how to minimize chances of making the wrong choice Collaboration, or how to establish the most effective work processes Budget control, or how to maximize project result...
    The Internet of Things can drive efficiency for airlines and airports. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Sudip Majumder, senior director of development at Oracle, discussed the technical details of the connected airline baggage and related social media solutions. These IoT applications will enhance travelers' journey experience and drive efficiency for the airlines and the airports.
    Without lifecycle traceability and visibility across the tool chain, stakeholders from Planning-to-Ops have limited insight and answers to who, what, when, why and how across the DevOps lifecycle. This impacts the ability to deliver high quality software at the needed velocity to drive positive business outcomes. In his session at @DevOpsSummit 19th Cloud Expo, Eric Robertson, General Manager at CollabNet, showed how customers are able to achieve a level of transparency that enables everyone fro...
    In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and G...
    Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
    Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more business becomes digital the more stakeholders are interested in this data including how it relates to business. Some of these people have never used a monitoring tool before. They have a question on their mind like “How is my application doing” but no id...
    In his general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, discussed how Dice leverages data insights and tools to help both tech professionals and recruiters better understand how skills relate to each other and which skills are in high demand using interactive visualizations and salary indicator tools to maximize earning potential. Manish Dixit is VP of Product and Engineering at Dice. As the leader of the Product, Engineering and Data Sciences team at D...
    Keeping pace with advancements in software delivery processes and tooling is taxing even for the most proficient organizations. Point tools, platforms, open source and the increasing adoption of private and public cloud services requires strong engineering rigor – all in the face of developer demands to use the tools of choice. As Agile has settled in as a mainstream practice, now DevOps has emerged as the next wave to improve software delivery speed and output. To make DevOps work, organization...
    Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
    Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at Dell EMC, introduced a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organization...

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    Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

    RICHARDS
    Venafi

    SINGH
    IBM

    NIELSON
    Redis Labs

    FRIEDMAN
    Edge

    THIELE
    Apcera

    MONTE-
    CILLO

    IBM

    SPROULE
    Metavine

    REUVENI
    Jet

    CHITTURI
    Sungard

    CEPPI
    Canonical

    HAFF
    Red Hat

    CHAMBLISS
    ReadyTalk

    BLACK
    SQLstream

    KOCHER
    Grey Heron

    VISWA-
    NATHAN

    Cognizant

    LARSSON
    Qosmos

    COHEN
    Institute

    SCHEELE
    Loodse

    FEATHER-
    STON

    Collaborative
    Consulting

    SEHGAL
    Tintri

    SRINIVAS
    IBM

    AHUJA
    Impiger

    SUDH-
    AKAR

    Splunk

    TISH-
    GART

    Cloudera

    KENDRICK
    Isomorphic

    KUCKEIN
    DDN

    RAVE
    Teridion

    CHOU
    Microsoft

    SHARIF
    Aporeto

    JAME-
    NSKY

    Embotics

    JENKINS
    IBM

    DOYLE
    eCube

    THOM-
    CHICK

    Symantec

    BRENTON
    CollabNet

    BERCO-
    VICI

    SolidFire

    BABIN
    Kaltura

    MORAN
    BMC

    CASEY
    CFN

    ZHENG
    CDS

    DEMEO
    Alfresco

    STIGTER
    TIBCO

    LEUFFEN
    Wrecker

    ROGERS
    Anexia

    NEW
    HOUSE

    Agilitiv

    DE MENO
    Commvault

    VAN TUIN
    Red Hat

    LIANG
    Rancher Labs

    MURTHY
    Cloud Raxak

    REMIL-
    LARD

    Microsoft

    MANN
    Splunk

    ROWE
    IBM Cloud

    SKILLERN
    Intel

    ALLEN
    Progress

    BENEDICT
    Cognizant
    Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Include

    DE MENO
    Commvault

    ERWAY
    Appneta

    OXENHORN
    FalconStor

    HINCH-
    CLIFFE

    7Summits

    DOYLE
    eCube

    CHAVES
    Pythian

    BLOOMBERG
    Intellyx

    BUGAYENKO
    Teamed.io

    LAWSON
    NewSci

    HAFF
    RedHat

    HOLT
    IBM

    Jewell
    Codenvy

    MORGENTHAL
    CSC

    ARMSTRONG
    AppNeta

    DWYER
    Iron.io

    MATSUMURA
    Gradle

    WARFIELD
    Coho

    GRECO
    Kaazing

    PRESLEY
    Pythian

    LOVELL-TROY
    Pythian

    ATCHISON
    New Relic

    BHUSVANE-
    SHWARI

    Microsoft

    GUCCIONE
    Keeper

    FLOREA
    Tintri

    KERBY
    BMC

    RAO
    Asurion

    BRENTON
    CollabNet

    SRINIVASAN
    Symantec

    GALBRAITH
    HPE

    NEWTON
    Alfresco

    ROGERS
    Anexia

    MORRISH
    Interoute

    TIFFANY
    SoftLayer

    OSTROVER-
    KHYI

    Mobidev

    LEWIS
    Formation
    Data

    KENDRICK
    Isomorphic

    REEVES
    Datical

    WALLER-
    STORFER

    Dynatrace

    CIOT
    Progress

    MOR
    Cloudyn

    LEFORT
    BMC

    ANDERSON
    BMC

    BRODY
    Webair

    NIELSEN
    Redis Labs

    SEHGAL
    Tintri

    MANN
    Splunk

    YOO
    Fuze

    COTY
    Alert Logic

    LANDA
    Kintone

    CHOQUETTE
    RackN

    MARTIN
    Security

    HURWITZ
    Hurwitz & Assc.

    Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

    KOWALL
    AppDynamics

    VAN TUIN
    Red Hat

    DEMMER
    Jut

    COHEN
    Netflix

    MUCHANDI
    Red Hat Inc

    BORELLO
    Sysdig

    GILPIN
    Conjur

    KANADE
    Harbinger
    Systems

    GORBACHEV
    Systems
    Services Inc.

    SUSSMAN
    Coalfire

    KHAN
    Solgeniakhela

    CHOKSI
    Harbinger
    Systems

    DE MENO
    CommVault

    BLOOMBERG
    Intellyx

    BUGWADIA
    Nirmata

    COTY
    Alert Logic

    FLETCHER
    Alert Logic

    CAUTHRON
    NIMBOXX

    LYNN
    AgilData

    WAGNER
    Cloudyn

    ANAND
    Appocito

    WEISS
    Pythian

    BRODY
    Webair

    JACKSON
    Softlayer

    DAVIDSON
    Juniper

    HOFFMAN
    Pivotal

    VERVAET
    HGST

    Murthy
    CloudRaxak

    FRANCISCO
    Evolute

    LETCHIN
    Nexenta

    SIMON
    JFrog

    BONIFAZI
    Solgenia

    WEISS
    ProfitBricks

    HOLT
    IBM

    HANNON
    SoftLayer

    GALLO
    SoftLayer

    SAYEGH
    Codero

    BIMMU
    Clouber

    SRINIVAS
    IBM

    CHAVAN
    IBM

    HEDGES
    Clouddata

    AHUJA
    Cloud

    MEINER
    Oracle

    SWARTZ
    Ericsson
    Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Included

    DE SOUZA
    Cisco

    POTTER
    SafeLogic

    ROBINSON
    CompTIA

    WARUSA
    -WITHANA

    WSO2 Inc

    MEINER
    Oracle

    CHOU
    Microsoft

    HARRISON
    Tufin

    BRUNOZZI
    VMware

    KIM
    MapR

    KANE
    Dyn

    SICULAR
    Basho

    TURNER
    Cloudian

    KUMAR
    Liaison

    ADAMIAK
    Liaison

    KHAN
    Solgenia

    BONIFAZI
    Solgenia

    SUSSMAN
    Coalfire

    ISAACSON
    RMS

    LYNN
    CodeFutures

    HEABERLIN
    Windstream

    RAMA
    MURTHY

    Virtusa

    BOSTOCK
    IndependenceIT

    DE MENO
    CommVault

    GRILLI
    Adobe

    WILLIAMS
    Rancher Labs

    CRISWELL
    Alert Logic

    COTY
    Alert Logic

    JACOBS
    SingleHop

    MARAVEI
    Cisco

    JACKSON
    Softlayer

    SINGH
    IBM

    HAZARD
    Softlayer

    GALLO
    Softlayer

    TAMASKAR
    GENBAND

    SUBRA
    -MANIAN

    Emcien

    LEVESQUE
    Windstream

    IVANOV
    StorPool

    BLOOMBERG
    Intellyx

    BUDHANI
    Soha

    HATHAWAY
    IBM Watson

    TOLL
    ProfitBricks

    LANDRY
    Microsoft

    BEARFIELD
    Blue Box

    HERITAGE
    Akana

    PILUSO
    SIASMSP

    HOLT
    IBM Cloudant

    SHAN
    CTS

    PICCININNI
    EMC

    BRON-
    GERSMA

    Modulus

    PAIGE
    CenturyLink

    SABHIKHI
    Cognitive Scale

    MILLS
    Green House Data

    KATZEN
    CenturyLink

    SLOPER
    CenturyLink

    SRINIVAS
    EMC

    TALREJA
    Cisco

    GORBACHEV
    Systems Services Inc.

    COLLISON
    Apcera

    PRABHU
    OpenCrowd

    LYNN
    CodeFutures

    SWARTZ
    Ericsson

    MOSHENKO
    CoreOS

    BERMINGHAM
    SIOS

    WILLIS
    Stateless Networks

    MURPHY
    Gridstore

    KHABE
    Vicom

    NIKOLOV
    GetClouder

    DIETZE
    Windstream

    DALRYMPLE
    EnterpriseDB

    MAZZUCCO
    TierPoint

    RIVERA
    WHOA.com

    HERITAGE
    Akana

    SEYMOUR
    6fusion

    GIANNETTO
    Author

    CARTER
    IBM

    ROGERS
    Virtustream
    Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers

    TESAR
    Microsoft

    MICKOS
    HP

    BHARGAVA
    Intel

    RILEY
    Riverbed

    DEVINE
    IBM

    ISAACSON
    CodeFutures

    LYNN
    HP

    HINKLE
    Citrix

    KHAN
    Solgenia

    SINGH
    Bigdata

    BEACH
    SendGrid

    BOSTOCK
    IndependenceIT

    DE SOUZA
    Cisco

    PATTATHIL
    Harbinger

    O'BRIEN
    Aria Systems

    BONIFAZI
    Solgenia

    BIANCO
    Solgenia

    PROCTOR
    NuoDB

    DUGGAL
    EnterpriseWeb

    TEGETHOFF
    Appcore

    BRUNOZZI
    VMware

    HICKENS
    Parasoft

    KLEBANOV
    Cisco

    PETERS
    Esri

    GOLDBERG
    Vormetric

    CUMBER-
    LAND

    Dimension

    ROSENDAHL
    Quantum

    LOOMIS
    Cloudant

    BRUNO
    StackIQ

    HANNON
    SoftLayer

    JACKSON
    SoftLayer

    HOCH
    Virtustream

    KAPADIA
    Seagate

    PAQUIN
    OnLive

    TSAI
    Innodisk

    BARRALL
    Connected Data

    SHIAH
    AgilePoint

    SEGIL
    Verizon

    PODURI
    Citrix

    COWIE
    Dyn

    RITTEN-
    HOUSE

    Cisco

    FALLOWS
    Kaazing

    THYKATTIL
    TimeWarner

    LEIDUCK
    SAP

    LYNN
    HP

    WAGSTAFF
    BSQUARE

    POLLACK
    AOL

    KAMARAJU
    Vormetric

    BARRY
    Catbird

    MENDEN-
    HALL

    SUPERNAP

    SHAN
    KEANE

    PLESE
    Verizon

    BARNUM
    Voxox

    TURNER
    Cloudian

    CALDERON
    Advanced Systems

    AGARWAL
    SOA Software

    LEE
    Quantum

    OBEROI
    Concurrent, Inc.

    HATEM
    Verizon

    GALEY
    Autodesk

    CAUTHRON
    NIMBOXX

    BARSOUM
    IBM

    GORDON
    1Plug

    LEWIS
    Verizon

    YEO
    OrionVM

    NAKAGAWA
    Transparent Cloud Computing

    SHIBATA
    Transparent Cloud Computing

    NATH
    GE

    GOKCEN
    GE

    STOICA
    Databricks

    TANKEL
    Pivotal Software



    Testimonials
    This week I had the pleasure of delivering the opening keynote at Cloud Expo New York. It was amazing to be back in the great city of New York with thousands of cloud enthusiasts eager to learn about the next step on their journey to embracing a cloud-first worldl."
    @SteveMar_Msft
    General Manager of Window Azure
     
    How does Cloud Expo do it every year? Another INCREDIBLE show - our heads are spinning - so fun and informative."
    @SOASoftwareInc
     
    Thank you @ThingsExpo for such a great event. All of the people we met over the past three days makes us confident IoT has a bright future."
    Yasser Khan
    CEO of @Cnnct2me
     
    One of the best conferences we have attended in a while. Great job, Cloud Expo team! Keep it going."

    @Peak_Ten


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    Join Us as a Media Partner - Together We Can Rock the IT World!
    SYS-CON Media has a flourishing Media Partner program in which mutually beneficial promotion and benefits are arranged between our own leading Enterprise IT portals and events and those of our partners.

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    @CloudExpo Blogs
    SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
    From personal care products to groceries and movies on demand, cloud-based subscriptions are fulfilling the needs of consumers across an array of market sectors. Nowhere is this shift to subscription services more evident than in the technology sector. By adopting an Everything-as-a-Service (XaaS) delivery model, companies are able to tailor their computing environments to shape the experiences they want for customers as well as their workforce.
    If you read a lot of business and technology publications, you might think public clouds are universally preferred over all other cloud options. To be sure, the numbers posted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft’s Azure platform are nothing short of impressive. Statistics reveal that public clouds are growing faster than private clouds and analysts at IDC predict that public cloud growth will be 3 times that of private clouds by 2019.
    "We provide IoT solutions. We provide the most compatible solutions for many applications. Our solutions are industry agnostic and also protocol agnostic," explained Richard Han, Head of Sales and Marketing and Engineering at Systena America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
    A recent BusinessWeek article titled “America’s Retailers Are Closing Stores Faster Than Ever” summarizes the epidemic that retailers are facing today (see Figure 1). Retailers are closing stores at a record path and the driving force behind the acceleration in store closings is Amazon, who now accounts for over 50% of all on-line retail sales (see Figure 2). What are retailers to do when the tricks and techniques that worked in the past just don’t work in today’s real-time data and analytics driven business world? Business models that worked in a world that valued size and location quickly...
    Being a business leader in the established economy is not necessarily a fun job these days. Keeping the competitors at a distance while finding ways to defend the current business model against the Internet giants like Amazon, Google, Facebook etc. is a tough job. However, running a business based on digital disciplines and being prepared with the right armor is simply about doing rather than thinking about the why. As a supporting element, a modern business strategy is built upon a magic triangle that consists of three vertices delivering the necessary essentials: Be digital. Use cloud. Lever...
    For over a decade, Application Programming Interface or APIs have been used to exchange data between multiple platforms. From social media to news and media sites, most websites depend on APIs to provide a dynamic and real-time digital experience. APIs have made its way into almost every device and service available today and it continues to spur innovations in every field of technology. There are multiple programming languages used to build and run applications in the online world. And just like every other language, there is always the need for an interpreter when trying to communicate with...
    If you are thinking about moving applications off a mainframe and over to open systems and the cloud, consider these guidelines to prioritize what to move and what to eliminate. On the surface, mainframe architecture seems relatively simple: A centrally located computer processes data through an input/output subsystem and stores its computations in memory. At the other end of the mainframe are printers and terminals that communicate with the mainframe through protocols. For all of its apparent simplicity, mainframe architecture can be extraordinarily complex. Mainframes process thousands o...
    Data reduction delivers compelling cost reduction that substantially improves the business case in every cloud deployment model. No matter which cloud approach you choose, the cost savings benefits from data reduction should not be ignored and must be a component of your cloud strategy. IT professionals are finding that the future of IT infrastructure lies in the cloud. Data reduction technologies enable clouds — public, private, and hybrid — to deliver business agility and elasticity at the lowest possible cost, making cloud the deployment model of choice for IT infrastructure going forward....
    In today's cloud based world, automation is key enabler for success. Yet, folks are scared of automation due to risk of losing job. However automation needs to be seen as a way to keep your job in and not out. Wikipedia definition of automation is "Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention." The key word in thi...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
    In its 2017 State of Malware Report, Malwarebytes Labs recorded a 267 percent increase in ransomware between January 2016 and November 2016, with over 400 different variants in total. The report noted that while malware authors mostly relied on ransomware to make the bulk of their revenues, there was an increase in ad fraud as well. Botnets and mobile malware also continue to expand and evolve. The report predicts that until IoT devices become secure out of the box, botnets will get even bigger and pose an even greater threat to the internet – and any company connected to it.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudistics, an on-premises cloud computing company, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cloudistics delivers a complete public cloud experience with composable on-premises infrastructures to medium and large enterprises. Its software-defined technology natively converges network, storage, compute, virtualization, and management into a single platform to drive unprecedented simplicity in the data center. Customers ca...
    "Suddenly a lot of companies started focusing on producing services in the cloud. I like to call it Cloud Native - everything is built for the cloud. The main concept there is to enable developers to work fast," explained Ben Bernstein, CEO & Co-Founder of Twistlock, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
    The current age of digital transformation means that IT organizations must adapt their toolset to cover all digital experiences, beyond just the end users’. Today’s businesses can no longer focus solely on the digital interactions they manage with employees or customers; they must now contend with non-traditional factors. Whether it's the power of brand to make or break a company, the need to monitor across all locations 24/7, or the ability to proactively resolve issues, companies must adapt to the new world.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that SourceForge has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SourceForge is the largest, most trusted destination for Open Source Software development, collaboration, discovery and download on the web serving over 32 million viewers, 150 million downloads and over 460,000 active development projects each and every month.
    In the No-Code corner are the ‘citizen developers’ – business users who can build functional but generally limited apps without having to write a line of code. The Low-Code corner, in contrast, centers on professional developers, streamlining and simplifying their work – delivering enterprise-class applications with little or no hand-coding. So far so good. Confusing, yes – but focusing on personas rather than coding provides a useful frame of reference. Only one problem: even this emerging model of the Low-Code/No-Code marketplace is itself ripe for its own disruption. And you ain’t se...
    The cloud ushered in a fundamental change in the way applications are deployed. Instead of worrying about how much dedicated hardware to order for your data center, you simply spin up as many servers as you need to do the job, then decommission them once the job is done. Yet, you still have to plan how many servers you will need at each stage of processing; you still have to remember to decommission them when done; and you pay for the entire virtual machine during the time you use it even though the server may be idle for most of that time.
    Most large organizations require dozens and sometimes hundreds of specialized software tools to manage the lifecycle of the physical products or software applications they create. It isn’t hard to imagine the monumental waste these organizations incur in attempting to manually coordinate the efforts of the teams that use these many disparate tools to create a single product. Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) is an open community for creating specifications for integrating lifecycle activities across tools to address this problem. Now imagine how much more happy and productive an...
    Today's world is a completely different place than it was in the past. Even compared to just 20 years ago, everything about the way the world runs has been totally altered. This is in large part thanks to the widespread usage of the Internet as well as other advancements in technology. The Internet has given birth to eCommerce, a term that describes something that all people are familiar with: purchasing and selling goods online. While the advent of eCommerce has undoubtedly transformed the marketplace, it has come with numerous positive and negative effects on the way in which people buy and ...