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Search-Enable Your Application with Lucene
Search-Enable Your Application with Lucene

The e-commerce Web site that I work on has seen several incarnations of its search feature. We started with plain vanilla SQL using "like" clauses, but this didn't perform well and left a lot to be desired in language features such as stemming (e.g., "paint" = "painter" = "painting") and synonym matching (e.g., "cat" = "feline"). Next we tried an off-the-shelf solution. This addressed our efficiency and language demands, but it was ridden with strange quirks and we were limited in how much we could customize its behavior.

Then we discovered Lucene. Lucene is an open-source search framework from Apache's Jakarta project. As a framework, Lucene provides you with the building blocks you need to build a search engine that meets your specific searching requirements. Lucene is flexible, fully customizable, and amazingly fast.

In this article I show you how to use Lucene to build a search solution for your application. Although my examples will be geared toward an e-commerce application, Lucene is flexible enough to be used on any application whether it's Web, desktop, or CD-ROM based.

I used version 1.2 of Lucene to develop the examples in this article. It can be downloaded from http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene. Lucene is self-contained, so you'll need only a JVM (v1.1.8 or higher) to use it. Place lucene-1.2.jar into your classpath and you're ready to start.

Indexing Documents
To build a Lucene index, first you'll need an instance of IndexWriter. The following lines of code create an IndexWriter for an index located at c:\myindex.

Analyzer analyzer = new StopAnalyzer();
writer = new IndexWriter("c:/myindex", analyzer, true);

The first argument to the constructor is the path where the index will be written. If the path doesn't already exist, Lucene will create it for you. The second argument is the Analyzer you want IndexWriter to use when tokenizing text. Here I used StopAnalyzer to remove stop words ("and," "or," "the," etc.) from the token stream. The last argument tells IndexWriter whether to create a new index or to add documents to an existing one. Passing true to the constructor will create the index from scratch; passing false will append to an existing index.

Now that you have an IndexWriter, you're ready to start adding documents to the index. The following code creates a simple document that represents a Web page and uses IndexWriter to add it to the index.

String url = "http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene";
String content = indexer.retrieveWebPageContent(url);
String keywords = indexer.extractKeywords(content);

Document doc = new Document();
doc.add(Field.UnIndexed("url", url));
doc.add(Field.UnStored("keywords", keywords));
doc.add(Field.Text("content", content));
writer.addDocument(doc);

In this example, the document contains the URL metadata for Lucene's homepage, a keywords field that contains search terms to match against in a search, and a "content" field that contains the full content of the Web page.

Once all documents have been added, all that remains is to close the index.

writer.close();

Although this example adds only a single (hard-coded) document to an index, it serves well as a "Hello World" example of how to create indexes using Lucene. The complete source code for this example is in Listing 1. (Listings 1-10 can be downloaded from www.sys-con.com/java/sourcec.cfm.)

For a more interesting example, suppose you're indexing a product catalog to be searched on an e-commerce Web site. A product is made up of a SKU, a name, a price, and some keywords to be searched on (see Listing 2). ProductIndexer (see Listing 3) is a convenience class used to add products to a Lucene index.

The constructor for ProductIndexer takes a string that's the path where the Lucene index will be built and a Boolean parameter that specifies whether a new index will be created or an existing index appended. ProductIndexer uses StopAnalyzer for tokenizing text.

The addProduct() method creates an instance of Document and translates the attributes of the Product into document fields. As in the simple example earlier, the "keywords" field is created as unstored so it can be searched upon but is unavailable for retrieval. The other fields are created as unindexed because these fields will be retrieved only after a successful search, not searched upon themselves.

The close() method closes the IndexWriter, making it available for searching. Before closing, however, a call is made to the IndexWriter's optimize() method to have Lucene optimize the index. Although it's entirely optional, it's generally a good idea to call optimize() if the indexing is finished for the time being and no further documents will be added to the index for a while.

ProductDBIndexer (see Listing 4) reads products from a "catalog" table in a relational database (see Table 1 for the products that I used) and uses ProductIndexer to add the products to Lucene's index. ProductDBIndexer takes two command-line arguments: the path in which to build the index and an optional "create" flag to indicate that the index should be built from scratch.

Lucene Index Structure
Lucene indexes are file based. If you look in the directory where you created the index, you'll find several files that define the Lucene index. Depending on how large your index is, you'll see several groups of files where each file in a group has the same name but a different extension. Each of these groups is known as a "segment." Although this article won't delve into the details of how Lucene segments work, it may be interesting to note that IndexWriter's optimize() method optimizes Lucene's index by consolidating all segments into a single segment for more efficient searching.

While IndexWriter is writing indexes, a file called "write.lock" is created. This file prevents other instances of IndexWriter from writing to the index concurrently. Calling IndexWriter's close() method removes this file and makes the index available for writing by another IndexWriter.

Lucene keeps track of each segment in the index using a file called "segments". During indexing, it occasionally becomes necessary for Lucene to update the segments file to keep it synchronized with the segments in the index. While this synchronization is going on, Lucene creates a "commit.lock" file to prevent concurrent updates of the segments file. Once the segments file is in sync, the commit.lock file is removed.

What would happen if you were to write to an index while it's being searched on? You may write to the index (either by adding new documents or re-creating the index from scratch) while it's being searched, but doing so may have undesirable effects on the search results. The worst side effect that I've seen is a document appearing out of order in the Hits collection. Depending on how important the ordering is to you, it may be best to create your indexes off-line (i.e., in another directory) and then rename the directory to become the current index.

Searching
Now that you've built an index, it's time to perform search queries against it. ProductSearcher (see Listing 5) shows how to do this.

To search a Lucene index you need an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Searcher. Two subclasses of Searcher come with Lucene. IndexSearcher is for searching a single Lucene index while MultiSearcher is used to search multiple indexes at once. Only the product catalog index will be searched, so IndexSearcher is the best choice for this example. It's constructed given the path to the index.

Searcher searcher = new IndexSearcher(indexPath);

Next you must construct a Query object. The best way to do this is to use the parse() method of org.apache.lucene.queryParser.QueryParser. Create an instance of QueryParser, passing the name of the default field (the field that's searched upon by default) and an analyzer to the constructor. Then call parse() on the QueryParser instance passing the query string. An instance of org.apache .lucene.search.Query will be returned.

QueryParser queryParser = new QueryParser("keywords", new StopAnalyzer());
Query query = queryParser.parse("cat food");

Note: QueryParser is not thread-safe. A new instance of QueryParser should be created for each thread.

For this example the choice of query string is hard coded as "cat food". This query will result in all documents containing either "cat" or "food", but not necessarily both. It's possible to require that a document's keyword field contain "cat" and "food" when searching. Simply place a plus (+) sign in front of each word so that the search string will be "+cat +food" to require resulting documents to contain both "cat" and "food" in their keyword field. More advanced search options will be discussed later.

Next make a call to the Searcher's search() method, passing in the Query object.

Hits hits = searcher.search(query);

The search() method returns an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Hits. The Hits class represents a collection of documents matching the search criteria, along with each document's relevancy score. These scores range from 0.0 to 1.0 where 1.0 is considered highly relevant and 0.0 is considered completely irrelevant (and not included in the Hits collection).

Finally, cycle through each Document returned in the Hits object displaying the SKU and name of the product along with its relevancy score.

for (int i = 0; i < hits.length(); i++) {
Document document = hits.doc(i);
float score = hits.score(i);
System.out.println(document.get("sku") + " :: " +
document.get("name") + " :: " + score);
}

Advanced Queries
Up until now, the queries have been relatively simple ones such as "cat food" and "+cat +food". QueryParser has a powerful selection of query operators to facilitate more complex searches. Table 2 lists all of QueryParser's operators.

Wildcard queries are fairly straightforward. The "*" operator can be replaced by zero or more characters to match a word. The "?" operator is replaced by exactly one character when matching. For example, "ca*" will match "cat", "car", "cap", or "candle", while "ca?" will match "cat", "car", and "cap", but not "candle". This is consistent with the behavior of "*" and "?" on a DOS or Unix command line.

The tilde (~) character, when used alone, performs a fuzzy search, matching words that are spelled similarly. For example, "cat~" will match "cat", but it will also match "car" and "rat" because these words are similarly spelled.

Surrounding two or more words with quotes (" ") produces a phrase. When two or more words are part of a phrase, those words must appear together in order to be considered a match. For example, ""dog food"" will match documents where "dog" is immediately followed by "food".

If a tilde and a number follow a phrase, then a proximity search is performed. For example, ""dog food"~10" will produce results where "dog" and "food" are found within 10 words of each other, but not necessarily adjacent to each other.

The carat (^) is a term booster. What this means is that any word followed by a carat is considered to have higher relevance than words not followed by a carat. For example, "dog^ kennel" will match where the document contains "dog" or "kennel", but will give a higher relevance to documents containing "dog".

The Boolean operators, AND, OR, and NOT behave as you would expect them to. For example, "(cat AND food) OR bird" returns all documents containing "cat" and "food" along with all documents that contain "bird". "cat NOT food" returns all documents containing "cat", but not containing "food". As you have seen before in the simple "cat food" example, OR is the default conjunction operator.

As shown in the previous example, parentheses can be used to group terms into subqueries.

As discussed, the plus sign (+) requires that a word or phrase exist in a field. Conversely, the minus sign (-) prohibits a word from appearing in the results and is roughly equivalent to NOT. For example, "dog -food" returns all documents containing "dog" but not containing "food".

Finally, there are times when you may want to search multiple fields. When constructing a QueryParser, you must specify a default field to be searched upon. Unless you specify otherwise, any words in your query will be looked for in the default field. In the examples, "keywords" is the default field. You can search on nondefault fields (assuming that they're indexed) by using a colon (:). For example, had the name field been tokenized and indexed, the query string "+cat +name:nummies" would return all documents in which the keywords field contains "cat" and the name field contains "nummies".

Customizing Lucene
While Lucene comes with an impressive set of functionality, you may still find that you want it to do something more or different than is available out of the box. As a search framework, Lucene provides several hooks for you to extend and/or modify its behavior.

In the previous examples, the analyzer chosen was StopAnalyzer. Underneath the covers, Stop-Analyzer uses LetterTokenizer to tokenize text into individual words. LetterTokenizer treats any nonalphabetic character as a delimiter. This is fine in most cases, but what if you want to tokenize text that contains numeric characters ("0" - "9") as well as alphabetic characters? This would be desirable if the keyword text contains part numbers or model numbers. LetterTokenizer wouldn't help in this case.

Listing 6 defines AlphanumericTokenizer, a tokenizer that works like LetterTokenizer except for one small difference: it treats numeric characters as token characters along with alphabetic characters. It does this by subclassing LetterTokenizer and overriding the isTokenChar() method to return the results of LetterTokenizer's isTokenChar() implementation OR'd with a call to Character.isDigit().

AlphanumStopAnalyzer (see Listing 7) is an analyzer that uses AlphanumericTokenizer. The stop-word behavior of StopAnalyzer is still desired, so AlphanumericTokenizer is wrapped with a StopFilter. To normalize the text to lowercase, StopFilter is then wrapped with LowercaseFilter. AlphanumStopAnalyzer is functionally equivalent to StopAnalyzer, except, since it uses AlphanumericTokenizer, it does not treat numeric characters as delimiters. To try out AlphanumStopAnalyzer, use it in place of StopAnalyzer in both ProductIndexer and ProductSearcher. Be sure to reindex with ProductIndexer before searching the index with the new analyzer.

Suppose that synonym-matching capability is required so that "cat" will match "kitten", "kitty", or "feline". AliasFilter (see Listing 8) is a subclass of TokenFilter that does this. AliasFilter retrieves its synonym list from entries in AliasFilter.properties. For example:

cat=feline kitten kitty
dog=canine puppy mutt
food=feed chow
parrot=bird

With each invocation of next(), AliasFilter first checks to see if there are any synonyms in the alias stack. If there are, it pops the next alias off the stack and returns it. Otherwise, AliasFilter retrieves the next token from the input TokenStream, adds any aliases that may exist to the alias stack, and then returns the next token.

AliasAnalyzer (see Listing 9) constructs a TokenStream that does everything the TokenStream from Alphanum-StopAnalyzer does, but it also uses AliasFilter to add synonyms to the TokenStream. To try AliasAnalyzer, use it as your analyzer instead of StopAnalyzer in both ProductIndexer and ProductSearch. Again, be sure to reindex before searching.

When trying AliasFilter you may discover some strange, albeit desirable, behavior. Search for "feline". Even though there are no aliases for feline, all cat-related products appear in the search results. Why? When you use AliasAnalyzer to search for "feline", the token stream does not expand beyond "feline". So why do "cat" products appear? The reason is, you also used AliasAnalyzer to index the products. When you indexed a product containing "cat", AliasAnalyzer expanded the token stream to include "kitten", "kitty", and "feline" in the index. When searching for "feline" it will be found in products whose token stream was expanded to include "feline". In effect, you get an automatic two-way aliasing between "cat" and "feline", even though it appears to be only one way in AliasFilter.properties.

Another common problem in searching is paging the results. A search query could return anywhere from zero results to a seemingly infinite number of result documents. Good usability practices suggest that you page the results, showing the user only a handful at a time. This can be accomplished in Lucene using result filters.

To create a result filter, you must subclass org.apache.lucene.search.Filter. The only required method is the bits() method. It will return a java.util.BitSet where each bit represents a document in the result set. If the bit is true, the document will be returned in Hits, otherwise it won't be returned.

PageFilter (see Listing 10) is an example of a Filter that's used to paginate search results. Given a page number and a page size, PageFilter will pare down Lucene's result set to a specific page's subset of documents. It does this by creating a BitSet big enough to hold the maximum number of result bits and then looping through the bits that need to be turned on. To use PageFilter, change ProductSearcher's call to search() to look like this:

Hits hits = searcher.search(query,new PageFilter(1,20));

This new call to search() will result in showing only the second set of 20 results.

Conclusion
Building a full-featured search engine can be a daunting task. But, thanks to Lucene, much of the complicated details are abstracted behind an easy-to-use API. We've seen how easy it can be to create an index for searching practically any type of information. We've also seen how Lucene is flexible and can be extended to satisfy custom indexing and searching requirements.

Resources

  • Jakarta Lucene: http://jakarta.apache.org/lucene
  • NLucene, the .NET implementation of Lucene at SourceForge: http://sourceforge.net/projects/nlucene
  • JGuru FAQ on Lucene: www.jguru.com/faq/Lucene
  • About Lucene's creator, Doug Cutting: http://lucene.sourceforge.net/background.html

    SIDEBAR
    Index Components
    A Lucene index is a collection of documents organized in a way that allows quick retrieval of information when arbitrarily queried upon.

    Each document (implemented by org.apache.lucene.document.Document) in a Lucene index is made up of one or more fields that are name-value pairs, much like entries in a HashMap. A document can contain as much or as little information as is required to be searched upon. For example, a Lucene document could contain the complete contents of a Web page, text file, e-mail, etc. On the other hand, a Lucene document may contain only a minimal set of metadata, such as keywords, along with a URL, a product SKU, or some other identifying information used to reference a full information source stored outside of Lucene (such as in a file system or a relational database).

    Each field in a document can be defined as being any combination of stored, indexed, and tokenized. If a field is stored, its contents are fully retrievable upon a successful search. If a field is indexed, its content may be referenced in a query and searched upon. If a field is tokenized, its content is broken into one or more tokens (or words) prior to being indexed.

    Fields can be created using org.apache.lucene.document.Field. The Field class has several static factory methods that make short work of creating field entries. Table 3 illustrates these static methods and the types of Fields that they create.

    Why would you want to index a field, but not store it? Consider a field that contains keywords for your document: chances are you'll never display or perform any processing of this field, but you still want to be able to search upon it. By indexing it you're making the field searchable, but by not storing it, you're saving space because the text is not written verbatim to the index. On the other hand, you may want to store some data so that it can be retrieved later but not actually be able to search upon it. In that case, you'd choose a field that's stored but not indexed. When defining your fields, be mindful of what those fields will be used for, and for efficiency's sake choose an appropriate field definition.

    SIDEBAR
    Search Components
    A Searcher (org.apache.lucene.search.Searcher) is used to access a Lucene index and query its contents. There are two subclasses of Searcher: IndexSearcher that searches a single index and MultiSearcher that searches one or more indexes and collects all the results in a single result set.

    Searches are performed by calling one of Searcher's search() methods and passing it a query (org.apache.lucene.search.Query). The search method returns an instance of org.apache.lucene.search.Hits. The Hits class is an array-like collection of documents that matches your query. The documents are ordered in Hits by a relevancy score.

    A Query object can be constructed using org.apache.lucene.query-Parser.QueryParser. QueryParser's parse() method parses a query string that's written in its query language and builds an appropriate Query object for that query string. QueryParser also uses an Analyzer in performing the parsing of the query string. It's not required, but it is strongly recommended that you use the same Analyzer for parsing queries that you used when indexing your documents.

    SIDEBAR
    Text Analysis Components
    When a field is tokenized, its content is broken into one or more tokens or words. Facilitating this tokenization process is the notion of an analyzer (see Figure 1). An analyzer is any subclass of org.apache.lucene.analysis.Analyzer that defines the rules for tokenization.

    A token stream is an iterator that returns the next token with each call to its next() method or returns a null when there are no more tokens in the stream. Two important subclasses of TokenStream are Tokenizer and TokenFilter. Both of these classes are abstract and must be subclassed to define the specific rules on how to tokenize content.

    At the core of the tokenization process is a Tokenizer. A Tokenizer wraps an instance of java.io.Reader and performs the actual work of breaking a stream into individual tokens (not unlike the notion of a StringTokenizer).

    TokenFilters act as decorators of other TokenStreams. Token filters can be used to add, replace, or remove tokens from a TokenStream. For example, org.apache.lucene.analysis.PorterStemFilter is a TokenFilter that replaces each word in a TokenStream with its word stem (e.g., "painting" becomes "paint").

    Analyzers rely on token streams (subclasses of org.apache.lucene.analysis.TokenStream) in defining the tokenization rules. In fact, an analyzer is nothing more than a factory for creating instances of TokenStream.

    To see how the text analysis components are used together, consider some of the TokenStream and Analyzer implementations packaged with Lucene. StopAnalyzer is an analyzer whose job is to remove stop words (e.g., "and", "or", "the", etc.) from a tokenized stream. At the core of StopAnalyzer is an instance of LowerCaseTokenizer. It tokenizes the stream into individual words, normalizing them to lowercase as it goes, where any nonalphabetic character is considered a delimiter. An instance of StopFilter decorates LowerCaseTokenizer, removing stop words from the stream as they're found. StopAnalyzer's tokenStream() method is merely a factory method that returns the decorator chain made up of LowerCaseTokenizer and StopFilter.

    About Craig Walls
    Craig Walls is the manager of Internet development for a Dallas, Texas-based retailer. He has eight years of experience in software development, six in Java. Craig is a Sun Certified Java programmer and a Sun Certified architect for the Java platform. He holds a BS in computer science from New Mexico State University.

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    I tried to implement the PageFilter, but it did not return any results. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks

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    Whether you like it or not, DevOps is on track for a remarkable alliance with security. The SEC didn’t approve the merger. And your boss hasn’t heard anything about it. Yet, this unruly triumvirate will soon dominate and deliver DevSecOps faster, cheaper, better, and on an unprecedented scale. In his session at DevOps Summit, Frank Bunger, VP of Customer Success at ScriptRock, discussed how this cathartic moment will propel the DevOps movement from such stuff as dreams are made on to a practic...
    The modern software development landscape consists of best practices and tools that allow teams to deliver software in a near-continuous manner. By adopting a culture of automation, measurement and sharing, the time to ship code has been greatly reduced, allowing for shorter release cycles and quicker feedback from customers and users. Still, with all of these tools and methods, how can teams stay on top of what is taking place across their infrastructure and codebase? Hopping between services a...
    As organizations realize the scope of the Internet of Things, gaining key insights from Big Data, through the use of advanced analytics, becomes crucial. However, IoT also creates the need for petabyte scale storage of data from millions of devices. A new type of Storage is required which seamlessly integrates robust data analytics with massive scale. These storage systems will act as “smart systems” provide in-place analytics that speed discovery and enable businesses to quickly derive meaningf...
    DevOps has often been described in terms of CAMS: Culture, Automation, Measuring, Sharing. While we’ve seen a lot of focus on the “A” and even on the “M”, there are very few examples of why the “C" is equally important in the DevOps equation. In her session at @DevOps Summit, Lori MacVittie, of F5 Networks, explored HTTP/1 and HTTP/2 along with Microservices to illustrate why a collaborative culture between Dev, Ops, and the Network is critical to ensuring success.
    There are so many tools and techniques for data analytics that even for a data scientist the choices, possible systems, and even the types of data can be daunting. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Harrold, Global CTO for Big Data Solutions for EMC Corporation, showed how to perform a simple, but meaningful analysis of social sentiment data using freely available tools that take only minutes to download and install. Participants received the download information, scripts, and complete end-t...
    Containers have changed the mind of IT in DevOps. They enable developers to work with dev, test, stage and production environments identically. Containers provide the right abstraction for microservices and many cloud platforms have integrated them into deployment pipelines. DevOps and containers together help companies achieve their business goals faster and more effectively. In his session at DevOps Summit, Ruslan Synytsky, CEO and Co-founder of Jelastic, reviewed the current landscape of Dev...
    When building large, cloud-based applications that operate at a high scale, it’s important to maintain a high availability and resilience to failures. In order to do that, you must be tolerant of failures, even in light of failures in other areas of your application. “Fly two mistakes high” is an old adage in the radio control airplane hobby. It means, fly high enough so that if you make a mistake, you can continue flying with room to still make mistakes. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee A...
    WebRTC is about the data channel as much as about video and audio conferencing. However, basically all commercial WebRTC applications have been built with a focus on audio and video. The handling of “data” has been limited to text chat and file download – all other data sharing seems to end with screensharing. What is holding back a more intensive use of peer-to-peer data? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Dr Silvia Pfeiffer, WebRTC Applications Team Lead at National ICT Australia, looked at differ...
    WebRTC has had a real tough three or four years, and so have those working with it. Only a few short years ago, the development world were excited about WebRTC and proclaiming how awesome it was. You might have played with the technology a couple of years ago, only to find the extra infrastructure requirements were painful to implement and poorly documented. This probably left a bitter taste in your mouth, especially when things went wrong.
    Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, discussed the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
    Whether they’re located in a public, private, or hybrid cloud environment, cloud technologies are constantly evolving. While the innovation is exciting, the end mission of delivering business value and rapidly producing incremental product features is paramount. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo, Kiran Chitturi, CTO Architect at Sungard AS, discussed DevOps culture, its evolution of frameworks and technologies, and how it is achieving maturity. He also covered various styles and...
    You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
    The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform and how we integrate our thinking to solve complicated problems. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and sh...
    Big Data, cloud, analytics, contextual information, wearable tech, sensors, mobility, and WebRTC: together, these advances have created a perfect storm of technologies that are disrupting and transforming classic communications models and ecosystems. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Erik Perotti, Senior Manager of New Ventures on Plantronics’ Innovation team, provided an overview of this technological shift, including associated business and consumer communications impacts, and opportunities it m...
    WebRTC sits at the intersection between VoIP and the Web. As such, it poses some interesting challenges for those developing services on top of it, but also for those who need to test and monitor these services. In his session at WebRTC Summit, Tsahi Levent-Levi, co-founder of testRTC, reviewed the various challenges posed by WebRTC when it comes to testing and monitoring and on ways to overcome them.
    @CloudExpo Stories
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Juniper Networks (NYSE: JNPR), an industry leader in automated, scalable and secure networks, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Juniper Networks challenges the status quo with products, solutions and services that transform the economics of networking. The company co-innovates with customers and partners to deliver automated, scalable and secure network...
    “DevOps is really about the business. The business is under pressure today, competitively in the marketplace to respond to the expectations of the customer. The business is driving IT and the problem is that IT isn't responding fast enough," explained Mark Levy, Senior Product Marketing Manager at Serena Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at DevOps Summit, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
    20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
    @GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Analytic. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Grape Up will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct. 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company specializing in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the U.S. and Europe, Grape Up works with a variety of customers from emergi...
    The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
    With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in compute, storage and networking technologies, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/...
    Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
    Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" pr...
    Developers want to create better apps faster. Static clouds are giving way to scalable systems, with dynamic resource allocation and application monitoring. You won't hear that chant from users on any picket line, but helping developers to create better apps faster is the mission of Lee Atchison, principal cloud architect and advocate at New Relic Inc., based in San Francisco. His singular job is to understand and drive the industry in the areas of cloud architecture, microservices, scalability ...
    Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at Dell EMC, introduced a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organization...
    The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
    Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the USA and Europe, we work with a variety of customers from emerging startups to Fortune 1000 companies.
    Financial Technology has become a topic of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 20th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York, June 6-8, 2017, will find fresh new content in a new track called FinTech.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
    @DevOpsSummit at Cloud taking place June 6-8, 2017, at Javits Center, New York City, is co-located with the 20th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long developm...
    Multiple data types are pouring into IoT deployments. Data is coming in small packages as well as enormous files and data streams of many sizes. Widespread use of mobile devices adds to the total. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the tools and environments that are being put to use in IoT deployments, as well as the team skills a modern enterprise IT shop needs to keep things running, get a handle on all this data, and deli...
    The age of Digital Disruption is evolving into the next era – Digital Cohesion, an age in which applications securely self-assemble and deliver predictive services that continuously adapt to user behavior. Information from devices, sensors and applications around us will drive services seamlessly across mobile and fixed devices/infrastructure. This evolution is happening now in software defined services and secure networking. Four key drivers – Performance, Economics, Interoperability and Trust ...

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    Sponsorship opportunities are now open for Cloud Expo 2017 New York, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, and for Cloud Expo 2017 Santa Clara, Oct 31-Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara,CA. For sponsorship, exhibit opportunities and show prospectus, please contact Carmen Gonzalez, carmen (at) sys-con.com.



    Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

    RICHARDS
    Venafi

    SINGH
    IBM

    NIELSON
    Redis Labs

    FRIEDMAN
    Edge

    THIELE
    Apcera

    MONTE-
    CILLO

    IBM

    SPROULE
    Metavine

    REUVENI
    Jet

    CHITTURI
    Sungard

    CEPPI
    Canonical

    HAFF
    Red Hat

    CHAMBLISS
    ReadyTalk

    BLACK
    SQLstream

    KOCHER
    Grey Heron

    VISWA-
    NATHAN

    Cognizant

    LARSSON
    Qosmos

    COHEN
    Institute

    SCHEELE
    Loodse

    FEATHER-
    STON

    Collaborative
    Consulting

    SEHGAL
    Tintri

    SRINIVAS
    IBM

    AHUJA
    Impiger

    SUDH-
    AKAR

    Splunk

    TISH-
    GART

    Cloudera

    KENDRICK
    Isomorphic

    KUCKEIN
    DDN

    RAVE
    Teridion

    CHOU
    Microsoft

    SHARIF
    Aporeto

    JAME-
    NSKY

    Embotics

    JENKINS
    IBM

    DOYLE
    eCube

    THOM-
    CHICK

    Symantec

    BRENTON
    CollabNet

    BERCO-
    VICI

    SolidFire

    BABIN
    Kaltura

    MORAN
    BMC

    CASEY
    CFN

    ZHENG
    CDS

    DEMEO
    Alfresco

    STIGTER
    TIBCO

    LEUFFEN
    Wrecker

    ROGERS
    Anexia

    NEW
    HOUSE

    Agilitiv

    DE MENO
    Commvault

    VAN TUIN
    Red Hat

    LIANG
    Rancher Labs

    MURTHY
    Cloud Raxak

    REMIL-
    LARD

    Microsoft

    MANN
    Splunk

    ROWE
    IBM Cloud

    SKILLERN
    Intel

    ALLEN
    Progress

    BENEDICT
    Cognizant
    Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Include

    DE MENO
    Commvault

    ERWAY
    Appneta

    OXENHORN
    FalconStor

    HINCH-
    CLIFFE

    7Summits

    DOYLE
    eCube

    CHAVES
    Pythian

    BLOOMBERG
    Intellyx

    BUGAYENKO
    Teamed.io

    LAWSON
    NewSci

    HAFF
    RedHat

    HOLT
    IBM

    Jewell
    Codenvy

    MORGENTHAL
    CSC

    ARMSTRONG
    AppNeta

    DWYER
    Iron.io

    MATSUMURA
    Gradle

    WARFIELD
    Coho

    GRECO
    Kaazing

    PRESLEY
    Pythian

    LOVELL-TROY
    Pythian

    ATCHISON
    New Relic

    BHUSVANE-
    SHWARI

    Microsoft

    GUCCIONE
    Keeper

    FLOREA
    Tintri

    KERBY
    BMC

    RAO
    Asurion

    BRENTON
    CollabNet

    SRINIVASAN
    Symantec

    GALBRAITH
    HPE

    NEWTON
    Alfresco

    ROGERS
    Anexia

    MORRISH
    Interoute

    TIFFANY
    SoftLayer

    OSTROVER-
    KHYI

    Mobidev

    LEWIS
    Formation
    Data

    KENDRICK
    Isomorphic

    REEVES
    Datical

    WALLER-
    STORFER

    Dynatrace

    CIOT
    Progress

    MOR
    Cloudyn

    LEFORT
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    ANDERSON
    BMC

    BRODY
    Webair

    NIELSEN
    Redis Labs

    SEHGAL
    Tintri

    MANN
    Splunk

    YOO
    Fuze

    COTY
    Alert Logic

    LANDA
    Kintone

    CHOQUETTE
    RackN

    MARTIN
    Security

    HURWITZ
    Hurwitz & Assc.

    Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

    KOWALL
    AppDynamics

    VAN TUIN
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    DEMMER
    Jut

    COHEN
    Netflix

    MUCHANDI
    Red Hat Inc

    BORELLO
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    GILPIN
    Conjur

    KANADE
    Harbinger
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    GORBACHEV
    Systems
    Services Inc.

    SUSSMAN
    Coalfire

    KHAN
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    CHOKSI
    Harbinger
    Systems

    DE MENO
    CommVault

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    Intellyx

    BUGWADIA
    Nirmata

    COTY
    Alert Logic

    FLETCHER
    Alert Logic

    CAUTHRON
    NIMBOXX

    LYNN
    AgilData

    WAGNER
    Cloudyn

    ANAND
    Appocito

    WEISS
    Pythian

    BRODY
    Webair

    JACKSON
    Softlayer

    DAVIDSON
    Juniper

    HOFFMAN
    Pivotal

    VERVAET
    HGST

    Murthy
    CloudRaxak

    FRANCISCO
    Evolute

    LETCHIN
    Nexenta

    SIMON
    JFrog

    BONIFAZI
    Solgenia

    WEISS
    ProfitBricks

    HOLT
    IBM

    HANNON
    SoftLayer

    GALLO
    SoftLayer

    SAYEGH
    Codero

    BIMMU
    Clouber

    SRINIVAS
    IBM

    CHAVAN
    IBM

    HEDGES
    Clouddata

    AHUJA
    Cloud

    MEINER
    Oracle

    SWARTZ
    Ericsson
    Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Included

    DE SOUZA
    Cisco

    POTTER
    SafeLogic

    ROBINSON
    CompTIA

    WARUSA
    -WITHANA

    WSO2 Inc

    MEINER
    Oracle

    CHOU
    Microsoft

    HARRISON
    Tufin

    BRUNOZZI
    VMware

    KIM
    MapR

    KANE
    Dyn

    SICULAR
    Basho

    TURNER
    Cloudian

    KUMAR
    Liaison

    ADAMIAK
    Liaison

    KHAN
    Solgenia

    BONIFAZI
    Solgenia

    SUSSMAN
    Coalfire

    ISAACSON
    RMS

    LYNN
    CodeFutures

    HEABERLIN
    Windstream

    RAMA
    MURTHY

    Virtusa

    BOSTOCK
    IndependenceIT

    DE MENO
    CommVault

    GRILLI
    Adobe

    WILLIAMS
    Rancher Labs

    CRISWELL
    Alert Logic

    COTY
    Alert Logic

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    SingleHop

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    IBM

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    Softlayer

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    TAMASKAR
    GENBAND

    SUBRA
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    Emcien

    LEVESQUE
    Windstream

    IVANOV
    StorPool

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    Intellyx

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    Soha

    HATHAWAY
    IBM Watson

    TOLL
    ProfitBricks

    LANDRY
    Microsoft

    BEARFIELD
    Blue Box

    HERITAGE
    Akana

    PILUSO
    SIASMSP

    HOLT
    IBM Cloudant

    SHAN
    CTS

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    Gridstore

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    WHOA.com

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    SEYMOUR
    6fusion

    GIANNETTO
    Author

    CARTER
    IBM

    ROGERS
    Virtustream
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    HP

    BHARGAVA
    Intel

    RILEY
    Riverbed

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    CodeFutures

    LYNN
    HP

    HINKLE
    Citrix

    KHAN
    Solgenia

    SINGH
    Bigdata

    BEACH
    SendGrid

    BOSTOCK
    IndependenceIT

    DE SOUZA
    Cisco

    PATTATHIL
    Harbinger

    O'BRIEN
    Aria Systems

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    BIANCO
    Solgenia

    PROCTOR
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    DUGGAL
    EnterpriseWeb

    TEGETHOFF
    Appcore

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    Parasoft

    KLEBANOV
    Cisco

    PETERS
    Esri

    GOLDBERG
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    LAND

    Dimension

    ROSENDAHL
    Quantum

    LOOMIS
    Cloudant

    BRUNO
    StackIQ

    HANNON
    SoftLayer

    JACKSON
    SoftLayer

    HOCH
    Virtustream

    KAPADIA
    Seagate

    PAQUIN
    OnLive

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    Connected Data

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    HOUSE

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    TimeWarner

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    AOL

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    BARRY
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    NATH
    GE

    GOKCEN
    GE

    STOICA
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    TANKEL
    Pivotal Software



    Testimonials
    This week I had the pleasure of delivering the opening keynote at Cloud Expo New York. It was amazing to be back in the great city of New York with thousands of cloud enthusiasts eager to learn about the next step on their journey to embracing a cloud-first worldl."
    @SteveMar_Msft
    General Manager of Window Azure
     
    How does Cloud Expo do it every year? Another INCREDIBLE show - our heads are spinning - so fun and informative."
    @SOASoftwareInc
     
    Thank you @ThingsExpo for such a great event. All of the people we met over the past three days makes us confident IoT has a bright future."
    Yasser Khan
    CEO of @Cnnct2me
     
    One of the best conferences we have attended in a while. Great job, Cloud Expo team! Keep it going."

    @Peak_Ten


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    Artificial Intelligence is the discipline of thinking machines. The field is growing dramatically with the proliferation of high powered computers into homes and businesses and especially with the growing power of smartphones and other mobile devices. Artificial intelligence software is assisting people in most every discipline. The many functions of AI are considered by many to be threatening many human jobs across multiple industries, but others consider it a great producer of jobs since it will help create entirely new industries and free more humans to innovate and create.
    The visual model to declarative metadata representation to immutable deployment vision is in essence what SD is all about. The secret to making this approach practical, and thus the key to understanding why SD approaches have become so prevalent, is the word immutable. Once we get an SD approach right, we no longer have to touch the deployed technology whatsoever. Instead, to make a change, update the model and redeploy.
    20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
    [Opening Scene]: Billy Dean is pacing the office. He’s struggling to keep his delivery trucks at full capacity and on the road. Random breakdowns, unexpected employee absences, and unscheduled truck maintenance are impacting bookings, revenues and ultimately customer satisfaction. He keeps hearing from his business customers how they are leveraging data science to improve their business operations. Billy Dean starts to wonder if data science can help him. As he contemplates what data science can do for him, he slowly drifts off to sleep, and visions of Data Science starts dancing in his head…...
    Enterprise architects are increasingly adopting multi-cloud strategies as they seek to utilize existing data center assets, leverage the advantages of cloud computing and avoid cloud vendor lock-in. This requires a globally aware traffic management strategy that can monitor infrastructure health across data centers and end-user experience globally, while responding to control changes and system specification at the speed of today’s DevOps teams. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Josh Gray, Chief Architect at Cedexis, will cover strategies for orchestrating global traffic achieving the highest...
    @GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Analytic. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.
    The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!
    With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterp...
    In 2016, blockchain technology came close to hitting its peak on Gartner’s annual Hype Cycle, signaling an imminent shift from an emerging, theoretical technology to widespread adoption. Like cloud, big data, and the Internet of Things (IoT) before it, blockchain is the tech industry’s latest Next Big Thing. Analysts and industry experts say it holds immense potential for organizations, but many business leaders don’t yet see a practical application for their operations. While a lot of people know blockchain is the technology behind Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies, what about ent...
    To more closely examine the variety of ways in which IT departments around the world are integrating cloud services, and the effect hybrid IT has had on their organizations and IT job roles, SolarWinds recently released the SolarWinds IT Trends Report 2017: Portrait of a Hybrid Organization. This annual study consists of survey-based research that explores significant trends, developments, and movements related to and directly affecting IT and IT professionals.
    Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" programs available to startups and innovators.
    Monitoring of Docker environments is challenging. Why? Because each container typically runs a single process, has its own environment, utilizes virtual networks, or has various methods of managing storage. Traditional monitoring solutions take metrics from each server and applications they run. These servers and applications running on them are typically very static, with very long uptimes. Docker deployments are different: a set of containers may run many applications, all sharing the resources of one or more underlying hosts. It's not uncommon for Docker servers to run thousands of short-te...
    Serverless is considered the successor to containers. And while it’s heavily promoted as the next great thing, it’s not the best fit for every use case. Understanding the pitfalls and disadvantages of serverless will make it much easier to identify use cases that are a good fit. This post offers some technology perspectives on the maturity of serverless today. First, note how we use the word serverless here. Serverless is a combination of “Function as a Service” (FaaS) and “Platform as a Service” (PaaS). Namely, those categories of cloud services where you don’t know what the servers look like...
    Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at Dell EMC, introduced a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organization in a “as-a-service” cloud model, and discussed the role that the data lake plays in monetizing the ...
    The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regulatory scrutiny and increasing consumer lack of trust in technology in general.
    Multiple data types are pouring into IoT deployments. Data is coming in small packages as well as enormous files and data streams of many sizes. Widespread use of mobile devices adds to the total. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the tools and environments that are being put to use in IoT deployments, as well as the team skills a modern enterprise IT shop needs to keep things running, get a handle on all this data, and deliver the analytics that add value.
    Is your application too difficult to manage? Do changes take dozens of developers hundreds of hours to execute, and frequently result in downtime across all your site’s functions? It sounds like you have a monolith! A monolith is one of the three main software architectures that define most applications. Whether you’ve intentionally set out to create a monolith or not, it’s worth at least weighing the pros and cons of the different architectural approaches and deciding which one makes the most sense for your applications. The proper design pattern can save your organization time and money, and...
    Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Aruna Ravichandran, vice president of DevOps Product and Solutions Marketing at CA Technologies, has been named co-conference chair of DevOps at Cloud Expo 2017. The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, and @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo Silicon Valley will take place Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
    The recent deluge of rains in Northern California have flooded streets, brought down trees and plugged storm sewers. As I was trying to make my way around the neighborhood, I thought of a classroom exercise to help my MBA students to identify the use cases upon which they could focus data and analytics. In this exercise, I’m going to ask my students to pretend that they have been hired by the city to “Optimize Street Maintenance” after these rainstorms.
    Whether you are an owner of a thriving small business or a decision maker at an established enterprise, you cannot ignore digital technology. Businesses worldwide are going digital to deliver compelling experiences to customers, which is becoming a key differentiating factor. The rise of social and mobile have increased the discoverability of businesses. Consumers are