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How to Optimize TCP | @DevOpsSUMMIT @Catchpoint #DX #DevOps #WebPerf
The aim of the modern web is to provide consumers with an excellent user experience by loading web content quickly & seamlessly

Optimize TCP to Speed Through the Digital Freeway
By Dhanush Suhas

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a common and reliable transmission protocol on the Internet. TCP was introduced in the 70s by Stanford University for US Defense to establish connectivity between distributed systems to maintain a backup of defense information. At the time, TCP was introduced to communicate amongst a selected set of devices for a smaller dataset over shorter distances.

As the Internet evolved, however, the number of applications and users, and the types of data accessed and stored also evolved. The original intent of TCP was to communicate data in the form of text across computers; today’s data transfer is more complex including high pixel images, audio files, and video delivery.

The aim of the modern web is to provide consumers with an excellent user experience by loading web content quickly and seamlessly. This can be achieved by faster transmission of content over the Internet. TCP has evolved over the years and the protocol enhancements have made it possible to transmit several types of data content with optimal performance for all users.

In this article, we talk about three protocol enhancements made to TCP to have content delivered at a better rate:

  • Multipath TCP
  • TCP Connection and Session reuse
  • TCP Slow Start

To appreciate the benefits of these optimizations, it’s necessary to understand the design and some of the drawbacks of the older version.

TCP Connection
For data to be communicated reliably and in the right sequence between two systems, TCP must initially establish a connection between them. Once the connection is established, TCP determines how to break down the data that needs to be sent over the network.

TCP was initially designed to establish communication after a successful three-way handshake between the client and server (See Diagram below). Along with the three-way handshake, the client and server also exchange security information in the form of certificates. These certificates authorize the client to set up a secure communication, consuming additional network time during reconnection tries in cases of connection breakdowns.

Drawback #1: Network Switching
When a mobile device streaming live content over a Wi-Fi network goes out of range, the device switches to its mobile carrier. In this scenario, TCP needs to repeat the three-way handshake and the security information exchange once again; in the process, the device drops the existing Wi-Fi connection. The multipath feature was enabled to overcome the drawback of network switching.

Multipath TCP
Multipath TCP has capabilities to enable multiple sub-flows in a single TCP session. For example, consider two separate networks – Network 1 and Network 2. The server can send data over wireless Network 1 and re-establish the connection with wireless Network 2 if Network 1 is unavailable. The network switch is done without dropping the existing connection, which eliminates the additional overhead of TCP connection time.

To understand multipath TCP better, let’s look at connection and session reuse, which is used to speed up TCP time.

Connection and Session Reuse
Once a connection is established between the client and server using the three-way handshake, the connection can be used to make multiple HTTP requests to retrieve contents from the same server. This is known as connection reuse.

During the handshake, the server shares a set of session information with the client. This includes the time the connection will be alive and SSL information containing the encryption keys. If the session ends, both the three-way handshake and the SSL negotiation need to be reestablished. Session reuse ensures the data streaming for the client is not disturbed so the web content or stream data does not have to be reloaded.

How Does Multipath TCP Work?
Let’s use an example of a smartphone with access to both a 4G connection and Wi-Fi interface. Say, the smartphone uses the 4G network to establish the connection to the server. To establish the connection:

  • The smartphone sends a SYN along with the MP_CAPABLE TCP option enabled (indicates the smartphone supports Multipath TCP)
  • The server responds back with SYN+ACK with MP_CAPABLE, after which the connection is established
  • This connection is established between the server and the Smartphone 4G carrier

Now, if the smartphone needs to send data over the Wi-Fi, then it sends a SYN with MP_JOIN TCP option. This option contains all the information required to authenticate and authorize the device and the Wi-Fi. For this, the server responds with SYN+ACK MP_JOIN and the new communication path is established.

By using the multipath TCP, the original connection established will not be closed, which does not affect the data stream and helps smartphone users have data stream consistent while moving from one wireless network to another.

Drawback #2: Flow Control
TCP controls the rate at which data is transmitted between the client and server. The internet infrastructure design is not the same across all regions, which means the amount of traffic handled at one location will not be the same as other.

Say, there are three Internet infrastructures over which the data can be transmitted from server to the client. We see A and C are completely capable of handling the rate at which the data is sent from the server, whereas B has a capacity issue. B can handle only 20Mbps of data, whereas the server sends at a rate of 30Mbps. This would lead to packet loss which in turn would result in retransmission of the lost packets. Retransmission forces the server to wait further for the acknowledgment, resulting in higher load time of the content on the wire.

TCP slow start was introduced to overcome this drawback.

TCP slow start works based on the windowing technique. This helps TCP control the rate at which data is sent over the network, and to understand the maximum capacity of data that can be sent over the wire.

TCP slow start exponentially increases the rate at which data is transmitted. Below we see the flow of data from the server to the client. Slow start initiates with one packet, on an acknowledgment from the client, it increases transmission rates by 2^n (1, 2, 4, 8 …). If any packet loss is observed over the network Slow Start retransmits only the lost packet, rather than sending all the packets in the window.

Slow start increases the window size exponentially until the maximum window size of the receiver is reached or when there’s packet loss due to congestion. In such scenarios, TCP slow start adjusts to the previous window size for which all the packets were acknowledged.

Using TCP slow start, the congestion over the network can be identified early hence reducing the packet loss and the overall retransmission of the lost packets. It also identifies the network capacity enabling the server to send data at a consistent rate over the network. This improves the TCP time which helps users experience a faster and more reliable data transfer.

Concluding with a real-world scenario on how network latency can affect the overall page load time and end user experience of a website.

In the scatterplot graph shown below, we see a lot of outlier data points for the response time or the time taken to load the base HTML page for a website in China. The base HTML page loaded the fastest with a response time of 1.17 seconds while the slowest response time was at 35 seconds as highlighted in the graph. Latency in loading the base request affects the end-user experience as it delays loading the required content on the page.

Scatterplot graph showing the distribution of data for Response Time

So, what could be causing the issue? Is it a slow server or a high network latency which has resulted in the inconsistent response to incoming requests? Catchpoint TCP and TraceRoute monitor types can help with the root cause analysis.

Catchpoint’s TCP and traceroute monitors can identify the network path chosen between the client and the server. Information about each hop in the network (Latency, IP, ISP, and etc.) can provide valuable insights into the impact of network performance on your overall response times. The TCP tests help monitor the time taken for requested content to be routed to the desired destination.

In the current digital landscape, speed and reliable data delivery are critical to a positive user experience. It’s equally pertinent to monitor the routes taken through the Internet to deliver content. This helps us isolate performance degradations caused by network failures or route inefficiencies.

The post Optimize TCP to Speed Through the Digital Freeway appeared first on Catchpoint's Blog - Web Performance Monitoring.

At CloudEXPO Silicon Valley, June 24-26, 2019, Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with expanded DevOpsSUMMIT and FinTechEXPO programs within the DXWorldEXPO agenda. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive over the long term. A total of 88% of Fortune 500 companies from a generation ago are now out of business. Only 12% still survive. Similar percentages are found throughout enterprises of all sizes.

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CloudEXPO Has Been the M&A Capital For Cloud Companies

CloudEXPO has been the M&A capital for Cloud companies for more than a decade with memorable acquisition news stories which came out of CloudEXPO expo floor. DevOpsSUMMIT New York faculty member Greg Bledsoe shared his views on IBM's Red Hat acquisition live from NASDAQ floor. Acquisition news was announced during CloudEXPO New York which took place November 12-13, 2019 in New York City.

Our Silicon Valley 2019 schedule will showcase 200 keynotes, sessions, general sessions, power panels, and hands on tutorials presented by 150 rockstar speakers in 10 hottest conference tracks of 2019:

» CloudEXPO
» ServerlessSUMMIT
» Kubernetes at CloudEXPO
» FinTechEXPO Blockchain
» DXWorldEXPO Digital Transformation
» AI | ML | DL | Artificial Intelligence
» Big Data | Analytics
» IoT | IIoT | Smart Cities
» Mobility | Security
» Enterprise Cloud Hot Topics

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CloudEXPO is the single event where technology buyers and vendors meet to experience and discus cloud computing and all that it entails. For more than a decade, sponsors and exhibitors of CloudEXPO benefit from unmatched branding, profile building and lead generation opportunities through our following unique tools. For more information on sponsorship, exhibit, and keynote opportunities call us at 954 242-0444 or contact us ▸ Here

  • Featured on-site presentation and ongoing on-demand webcast exposure to a captive audience of industry decision-makers
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  • Unprecedented PR Coverage: Unmatched editorial coverage on Cloud Computing Journal
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FinTech and Blockchain Are Now Part of CloudEXPO 2019 Program

Financial enterprises in New York City, London, Singapore, and other world financial capitals are embracing a new generation of smart, automated FinTech that eliminates many cumbersome, slow, and expensive intermediate processes from their businesses.

Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 23rd CloudEXPO, June 24-26, 2019 at Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA will find fresh new content in full new FinTech & Enterprise Blockchain track.

ServerlessSUMMIT & Kubernetes at CloudEXPO Silicon Valley

As you know, enterprise IT conversation over the past year have often centered upon the open-source Kubernetes container orchestration system. In fact, Kubernetes has emerged as the key technology -- and even primary platform -- of cloud migrations for a wide variety of organizations. Kubernetes is critical to forward-looking enterprises that continue to push their IT infrastructures toward maximum functionality, scalability, and flexibility.

Kubernetes is critical to forward-looking enterprises that continue to push their IT infrastructures toward maximum functionality, scalability, and flexibility.

As they do so, IT professionals are also embracing the reality of Serverless architectures, which are critical to developing and operating real-time applications and services. Serverless is particularly important as enterprises of all sizes develop and deploy Internet of Things (IoT) initiatives.

Serverless and Kubernetes are great examples of continuous, rapid pace of change in enterprise IT. They also raise a number of critical issues and questions about employee training, development processes, and operational metrics.

DevOpsSUMMIT at CloudEXPO Celebrates Its 12th Event in Six Years

Cloud-Native thinking and Serverless Computing are now the norm in financial services, manufacturing, telco, healthcare, transportation, energy, media, entertainment, retail and other consumer industries, as well as the public sector.

The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long development cycles that produce software that is obsolete at launch. DevOps may be disruptive, but it is essential.

ServerlessSUMMIT and DevOpsSUMMIT at CloudEXPO expands the DevOps community, enable a wide sharing of knowledge, and educate delegates and technology providers alike.

There's a real need for serious conversations about Serverless and Kubernetes among the people who are doing this work and managing it.

So we are very pleased today to announce the ServerlessSUMMIT at CloudEXPO.

The graph represents a network of 1,329 Twitter users whose recent tweets contained "#DevOps", or who were replied to or mentioned in those tweets, taken from a data set limited to a maximum of 18,000 tweets. The network was obtained from Twitter on Thursday, 10 January 2019 at 23:50 UTC.

DXWorldEXPO Showcases Cutting-Edge IoT, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Digital Transformation

Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation. DX encompasses the continuing technology revolution, and is addressing society's most important issues throughout the entire $78 trillion 21st-century global economy.

DXWorldEXPO® has organized these issues along 10 tracks, 22 keynotes and general sessions, and a faculty of 222 of the world's top speakers.

DXWorldEXPO® has three major themes on its conference agenda:

Technology - The Revolution Continues
Economy - The 21st Century Emerges
Society - The Big Issues

Global 2000 companies have more than US$40 trillion in annual revenue - more than 50% of the world's entire GDP. The Global 2000 spends a total of US$2.4 trillion annually on enterprise IT. The average Global 2000 company has US$11 billion in annual revenue. The average Global 2000 company spends more than $600 million annually on enterprise IT. Governments throughout the world spend another US$500 billion on IT - much of it dedicated to new Smart City initiatives.

For the past 10 years CloudEXPO® helped drive the migration to modern enterprise IT infrastructures, built upon the foundation of cloud computing. Today's hybrid, multiple cloud IT infrastructures integrate Big Data, analytics, blockchain, the IoT, mobile devices, and the latest in cryptography and enterprise-grade security.

Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. DX is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.


DXWorldEXPO LLC is a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based trade show company and the creator of DXWorldEXPO - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo. The company produces and presents the world's most influential technology events including CloudEXPO, DevOpsSUMMIT, and FinTechEXPO.

Read the original blog entry...

About Mehdi Daoudi
Catchpoint radically transforms the way businesses manage, monitor, and test the performance of online applications. Truly understand and improve user experience with clear visibility into complex, distributed online systems.

Founded in 2008 by four DoubleClick / Google executives with a passion for speed, reliability and overall better online experiences, Catchpoint has now become the most innovative provider of web performance testing and monitoring solutions. We are a team with expertise in designing, building, operating, scaling and monitoring highly transactional Internet services used by thousands of companies and impacting the experience of millions of users. Catchpoint is funded by top-tier venture capital firm, Battery Ventures, which has invested in category leaders such as Akamai, Omniture (Adobe Systems), Optimizely, Tealium, BazaarVoice, Marketo and many more.

Silicon Valley Faculty Highlight
The platform combines the strengths of Singtel's extensive, intelligent network capabilities with Microsoft's cloud expertise to create a unique solution that sets new standards for IoT applications," said Mr Diomedes Kastanis, Head of IoT at Singtel. "Our solution provides speed, transparency and flexibility, paving the way for a more pervasive use of IoT to accelerate enterprises' digitalisation efforts. AI-powered intelligent connectivity over Microsoft Azure will be the fastest connected path for IoT innovators to scale globally, and the smartest path to cross-device synergy in an instrumented, connected world.
There are many examples of disruption in consumer space – Uber disrupting the cab industry, Airbnb disrupting the hospitality industry and so on; but have you wondered who is disrupting support and operations? AISERA helps make businesses and customers successful by offering consumer-like user experience for support and operations. We have built the world’s first AI-driven IT / HR / Cloud / Customer Support and Operations solution.
"NetApp's vision is how we help organizations manage data - delivering the right data in the right place, in the right time, to the people who need it, and doin...
"We were founded in 2003 and the way we were founded was about good backup and good disaster recovery for our clients, and for the last 20 years we've been pret...
CloudEXPO TV Power Panels
New competitors, disruptive technologies, and growing expectations are pushing every business to both adopt and deliver new digital services. This ‘Digital Tran...
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This week I had the pleasure of delivering the opening keynote at Cloud Expo New York. It was amazing to be back in the great city of New York with thousands of cloud enthusiasts eager to learn about the next step on their journey to embracing a cloud-first worldl."
How does Cloud Expo do it every year? Another INCREDIBLE show - our heads are spinning - so fun and informative."
Thank you @ThingsExpo for such a great event. All of the people we met over the past three days makes us confident IoT has a bright future."
One of the best conferences we have attended in a while. Great job, Cloud Expo team! Keep it going."


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